It is well settled that where more than one court has jurisdiction, it is open for the parties to exclude all other courts. For an exhaustive analysis of the case law, see Swastik Gases (P) Ltd. v. Indian Oil Corpn. Ltd. [Swastik Gases (P) Ltd. v. Indian Oil Corpn. Ltd., (2013) 9 SCC 32 : (2013) 4 SCC (Civ) 157] […]

When written statements are required—It is laid down in Order VIII, Rule 1, of the Code of Civil Procedure, that 7(a defendant shall at or before the first hearing or within such time as the Court may permit, present a written statement of his defence in duplicate, one for the Court and the other for the plaintiff). In most cases, […]

Non-joinder and mis-joinder of parties and causes of action—Attention is drawn to the provisions of law contained in Orders I and II of the Civil Procedure Code relating to non-joinder of parties and mis-joinder of causes of action and parties and as to representative suits— (i) Joinder of parties—Order I, Rules 1 and 3 provide in what case several plaintiffs […]

It is stated that there is a movement or project which is called “Romeo Jihad” or “Love Jihad” conceived by a section of the Muslims. The idea appears to be to convert girls belonging to other religions to Islam. It is stated that Muslim boys are directed to pretend love to girls of other religions and get them converted to Islam. A lot of money is available for executing the project.

Consciousness Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one’s environment. In common parlance, consciousness denotes being awake and responsive to one’s environment; this contrasts with being asleep or being in a coma. Consciousness is notoriously difficult to define or locate. Many cultures and religious traditions place the seat of consciousness in a soul separate from the body. Conversely, many scientists […]

Perception In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. Methods of studying perception range from essentially biological or physiological approaches, through psychological approaches to the often abstract ‘thought-experiments’ of mental philosophy. The senses Human perception depends on the senses. The classical five senses are sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Along with these there are at least four other senses: proprioception (body awareness), equilibrioception (balance), thermoception (heat) and nociception (pain). Beyond these, some believe in the existence of other […]

Propositional knowledge Propositional knowledge or declarative knowledge is knowledge that some proposition is either true or false. This distinguishes propositional knowledge from know-how or procedural knowledge, which is the knowledge of how to perform some task. This article discusses propositional knowledge from a variety of perspectives, including philosophy, science, and history. What is the difference between knowledge and beliefs? A belief is an internal thought or memory which exists in one’s mind. Most people accept that for a […]

Knowledge Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the possession of interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value. Knowledge is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is (as a rule) closely related to such concepts as meaning, information, instruction, communication, representation, learning and mental stimulus. Knowledge is […]

Profession A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. Definitions In a more restrictive sense, profession often refers specifically to fields that require extensive study and mastery of specialized knowledge, such as law, medicine, the military, nursing, the clergy or engineering. In this sense, profession is contrasted with occupation, which refers generally to the nature of a person’s employment. Terms such as occupational serve the purpose of upholding the distinction between professionals and others who for […]

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