Commentary On The Code of Criminal Procedure 1973[Cr.P.C]

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Article 21 of the Constitution in its broad perspective seeks to protect the persons of their lives and personal liberties except according to the procedure established by law. The said article in its broad application not only takes within its fold enforcement of the rights of an accused but also the rights of the victim. The State has a duty to enforce the human rights of a citizen providing for fair and impartial investigation against any person accused of commission of a cognizable offence, which may include its own officers. In certain situations even a witness to the crime may seek for and shall be granted protection by the State.

CHAPTERS
I.  Preliminary
II. Constitution of Criminal Courts and Offices
III.  Power of Courts
IV. A.—Powers of superior officers of police
B.—Aid to the Magistrates and the police
V.  Arrest of Persons

VI.  Processes to Compel Appearance
A.—Summons
B.—Warrant of arrest
C.—Proclamation and attachment
D.—Other rules regarding processes

VII. Processes to Compel the Production of Things 
A.—Summons to produce
B.—Search-Warrants
C.—General provisions relating to searches
D.—Miscellaneous

VII-A. Reciprocal arrangements for Assistance in certain matters and Procedure for
Attachment and Forfeiture of Property
VIII. Security for keeping the Peace and for Good Behaviour
IX.  Order for Maintenance of Wives, Children and Parents

X.  Maintenance of Public Order and Tranquillity
A.—Unlawful assemblies
B.—Public nuisances
C.—Urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger
D.—Disputes as to immovable property

XI.  Preventive Action of the Police

XII.  Information to the Police and their Powers to Investigate

XIII. Jurisdiction of the Criminal Courts in Inquiries and Trials
XIV.   Conditions Requisite for Initiation of Proceedings
XV.    Complaints to Magistrates
XVI.   Commencement of Proceedings before Magistrates

XVII.  The Charge
A.—Form of Charges
B.—Joinder of charges

XVIII.  Trial before a Court of Session
XIX.  Trial of Warrant-Cases by Magistrates 
A.—Cases instituted on a police report
B.—Cases instituted otherwise than on police report
C.—Conclusion of trial
XX.  Trial of Summons-Cases by Magistrates
XXI.  Summary Trials

XXI-A. Plea Bargaining

XXII.  Attendance of Persons confined or detained in Prisons

XXIII.  Evidence in Inquiries and Trials
A.—Mode of taking and recording evidence
B.—Commissions for the examination of witnesses

XXIV. General Provisions as to Enquiries and Trials
XXV.  Provisions as to Accused Persons of Unsound Mind
XXVI. Provisions as to Offences affecting the Administration of Justice

27.  The Judgment

XXVIII.  Submission of Death Sentences for Confirmation

  1. Appeals
    30.  Reference and Revision

XXXI.   Transfer of Criminal Cases

XXXII.  Execution, Suspension, Remission and Commutation of Sentences
A.—Death sentences
B. —Imprisonment
C. —Levy of fine
D. —General provisions regarding execution
E. —Suspension, Remission and Commutation of Sentences

  1. Provisions as to Bail and Bonds

XXXIV. Disposal of Property [s 451 to 459]

  1. Irregular Proceedings
  2. Limitation for taking Cognizance of certain Offences

XXXVII. Miscellaneous

The First Schedule—Classification of Offences

Second Schedule—Forms

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The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973

[25th January 1974]

Act No. 02 of 1974 An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to Criminal Procedure.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-fourth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

Chapter I Preliminary


1. Short title, extent and commencement.

(1) This Act may be called the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir :
Provided that the provisions of this Code, other than those relating to Chapters VIII, X and XI thereof, shall not apply–

(a) to the State of Nagaland,
(b) to the tribal areas,

but the concerned State Government may, by notification apply such provisions or any of them to the whole or part of the State of Nagaland or such tribal areas, as the case may be, with such supplemental, incidental or consequential modifications, as may be specified in the notification.

Explanation.- In this section, “tribal areas” means the territories which immediately before the 21st day of January, 1972, were included in the tribal areas of Assam, as referred to in paragraph 20 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution, other than those within the local limits of the municipality of Shillong.

(3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1974.

Comment:

  1. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898[India, now repealed]
  2. THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE OF PAKISTAN 1898
  3. Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China

 

2. Definitions.

In this Code, unless the context otherwise requires,-

(a)”bailable offence” means an offence which is shown as bailable in the First Schedule, or which is made bailable by any other law for the time being in force; and “non-bailable offence” means any other offence;

(b)”charge” includes any head of charge when the charge contains more heads than one:

(c)”cognizable offence” means an offence for which, and “cognizable case” means a case in which, a police officer may, in accordance with the First Schedule or under any other law for the time being in force, arrest without warrant;

(d)”complaint” means any allegation made orally or in writing to a Magistrate, with a view to his taking action under this Code, that some person, whether known or unknown, has committed an offence, but does not include a police report.

Explanation.-A report made by a police officer in a case which discloses, after investigation, the commission of a non-cognizable offence shall be deemed to be a complaint; and the police officer by whom such report is made shall be deemed to be the complainant;

(e) “High Court” means,–

(i) in relation to any State, the High Court for that State;
(ii)in relation to a Union territory to which the jurisdiction of the High Court for a State has been extended by law, that High Court;
(iii)in relation to any other Union territory, the highest Court of criminal appeal for that territory other than the Supreme Court of India;

(f)”India” means the territories to which this Code extends;

(g)”inquiry” means every inquiry, other than a trial, conducted under this Code by a Magistrate or Court;

(h)”investigation” includes all the proceedings under this Code for the collection of evidence conducted by a police officer or by any person (other than a Magistrate) who is authorised by a Magistrate in this behalf;

(i)”judicial proceeding” includes any proceeding in the course of which evidence is or may be legally taken on oath;

(j)”local jurisdiction”, in relation to a Court or Magistrate, means the local area within which the Court or Magistrate may exercise all or any of its or his powers under this Code and such local area may comprise the whole of the State, or any part of the State, as the State Government may, by notification, specify;

(k)”metropolitan area” means the area declared, or deemed to be declared, under section 8, to be a metropolitan area;

(l)”non-cognizable offence” means an offence for which, and “non-cognizable case” means a case in which, a police officer has no authority to arrest without warrant;

(m)”notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
(n)”offence” means any act or omission made punishable by any law for the time being in force and includes any act in respect of which a complaint may be made under section 20 of the Cattle-trespass Act, 1871 (1 of 1871);

(o)”officer in charge of a police station” includes, when the officer in charge of the police station is absent from the station-house or unable from illness or other cause to perform his duties, the police officer present at the station-house who is next in rank to such officer and is above the rank of constable or, when, the State Government so directs, any other police officer so present;

(p)”place” includes a house, building, tent, vehicle and vessel;

(q)”pleader”, when used with reference to any proceeding in any Court, means a person authorised by or under any law for the time being in force, to practice in such Court, and includes any other appointed with the permission of the Court to act in such proceeding;

(r)”police report” means a report forwarded by a police officer to a Magistrate under sub-section (2) of section 173;

(s)”police station” means any post or place declared generally or specially by the State Government, to be a police station, and includes any local area specified by the State Government in this behalf;

(t)”prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Code;

(u)”Public Prosecutor” means any person appointed under section 24, and includes any person acting under the directions of a Public Prosecutor;

(v)”sub-division” means a sub-division of a district;

(w)”summons-case” means a case relating to an offence, and not being a warrant-case;

(wa)”victim” means a person who has suffered any loss or injury caused by reason of the act or omission for which the accused person has been charged and the expression “victim” includes his or her guardian or legal heir;

(x)”warrant-case” means a case relating to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years;

(y) words and expressions used herein and not defined but defined in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code.


3. Construction of references.—

(1) In this Code,-

(a) any reference, without any qualifying words, to a Magistrate shall be construed, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(i)in relation to an area outside a metropolitan area, as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate;
(ii)in relation to a metropolitan area, as a reference to a Metropolitan Magistrate;

(b)any reference to a Magistrate of the second class shall, in relation to an area outside a metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the second class, and, in relation to a Metropolitan area, as a reference to a Metropolitan Magistrate;

(c) any reference to a Magistrate of the first class shall,–
(i)in relation to a Metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to a Metropolitan Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in that area;
(ii)in relation to any other area, be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the first class exercising jurisdiction in that area;

(d)any reference to the Chief Judicial Magistrate shall, in relation to a Metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in that area.

(2) In this Code, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference to the Court of a Judicial Magistrate shall, in relation to a Metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to the Court of the Metropolitan Magistrate for that area.

(3) Unless the context otherwise requires, any reference in any enactment passed before the commencement of this Code.-
(a)to a Magistrate of the first class, shall be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the first class;
(b)to a Magistrate of the second class or of the third class, shall be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the second class;
(c)to a Presidency Magistrate or Chief Presidency Magistrate, shall be construed as a reference, respectively, to a Metropolitan magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate;
(d)to any area which is included in a metropolitan area, as a reference to such metropolitan area, and any reference to a Magistrate of the first class or of the second class in relation to such area, shall be construed as a reference to the Metropolitan Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in such area.

(4) Where, under any law, other than this Code, the functions exercisable by a Magistrate relate to matters–
(a)which involve the appreciation or shifting of evidence or the formulation of any decision which exposes any person to any punishment or penalty or detention in custody pending investigation, inquiry or trial or would have the effect of sending him for trial before any Court, they shall, subject to the provisions of this Code, be exercisable by a Judicial Magistrate; or
(b)which are administrative or executive in nature, such as, the granting of a licence, the suspension or cancellation of a licence, sanctioning a prosecution or withdrawing from a prosecution, they shall, subject as aforesaid, be exercisable by an Executive Magistrate.


4. Trial of offences under the Indian Penal Code and other laws

(1) All offences under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, and otherwise dealt with according to the provisions hereinafter contained.

(2) All offences under any other law shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, and otherwise dealt with according to the same provisions, but subject to any enactment for the lime being in force regulating the manner or place of investigating, inquiring into, trying or otherwise dealing with such offences.


5. Saving

Nothing contained in this Code shall, in the absence of a specific provision to the contrary, affect any special or local law for the time being in force, or any special jurisdiction or power conferred, or any special form of procedure prescribed, by any other law for the time being in force.

 


Chapter II   Constitution Of Criminal Courts And Offices

Chapter III

Power of Courts

26. Courts by which offences are triable

Subject to the other provisions of this Code,—
(a)
any offence under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) may be tried by-
(i)the High Court, or
(ii)the Court of Session, or
(iii)any other Court by which such offence is shown in the First Schedule to be triable;
Provided that any offence under section 376, section 376A, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be tried as far as practicable by a Court presided over by a woman.
(b)
any offence under any other law shall, when any Court is mentioned in this behalf in such law, be tried by such Court and when no Court is so mentioned, may be tried by.–
(i)the High Court, or
(ii)any other Court by which such offence is shown in the First Schedule to be triable.
27. Jurisdiction in the case of juveniles

Any offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for life, committed by any person who at the date when he appears or is brought before the Court is under the age of sixteen years, may be tried by the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate, or by any Court specially empowered under the Children Act, 1960 (60 of 1960), or any other law for the time being in force providing for the treatment, training and rehabilitation of youthful offenders.

28. Sentences which High Courts and Sessions Judges may pass

(1) A High Court may pass any sentence authorised by law.
(2) A Sessions Judge or Additional Sessions Judge may pass any sentence authorised by law; but any sentence of death passed by any such Judge shall be subject to confirmation by the High Court.
(3) An Assistant Sessions Judge may pass any sentence authorised by law except a sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding ten years.

29. Sentences which Magistrates may pass

(1) The Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate may pass any sentence authorised by law except a sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years.
(2) The Court of a Magistrate of the first class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or of fine not exceeding ten thousand rupees, or both.
(3) The Court of a Magistrate of the second class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or of fine not exceeding five thousand rupees, or of both.
(4) The Court of a Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall have the powers of the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate and that of a Metropolitan Magistrate, the powers of the Court of a Magistrate of the first class.

30. Sentence of imprisonment in default of fine

(1) The Court of a Magistrate may award such term of imprisonment in default of payment of fine as is authorised by law:
Provided that the term—
(a)is not in excess of the powers of the Magistrate under section 29;
(b)shall not, where imprisonment has been awarded as part of the substantive sentence, exceed one-fourth of the term of imprisonment which the Magistrate is competent to inflict as punishment for the offence otherwise than as imprisonment in default of payment of the fine.
(2) The imprisonment awarded under this section may be in addition to a substantive sentence of imprisonment for the maximum term awardable by the Magistrate under section 29.

31. Sentence in cases of conviction of several offences at one trial

(1) When a person is convicted at one trial of two or more offences, the Court may, subject to the provisions of section 71 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), sentence him for such offences, to the several punishments, prescribed therefor which such Court is competent to inflict; such punishments when consisting of imprisonment to commence the one after the expiration of the other in such order as the Court may direct, unless the Court directs that such punishments shall run concurrently.
(2) In the case of consecutive sentences, it shall not be necessary for the Court by reason only of the aggregate punishment for the several offences being in excess of the punishment which it is competent to inflict on conviction of a single offence, to send the offender for trial before a higher Court:
Provided that–
(a)in no case shall such person be sentenced to imprisonment for a longer period than fourteen years;
(b)the aggregate punishment shall not exceed twice the amount of punishment which the Court is competent to inflict for a single offence.
(3) For the purpose of appeal by a convicted person, the aggregate of the consecutive sentences passed against him under this section shall be deemed to be a single sentence.

32. Mode of conferring powers

(1) In conferring powers under this Code, the High Courts or the State Government, as the case may be, may, by order, empower persons specially by name or in virtue of their offices or classes of officials generally by their official titles.

(2) Every such order shall take effect from the date on which it is communicated to the person so empowered.

33. Powers of officers appointed

Whenever any person holding an office in the service of Government who has been invested by the High Court or the State Government with any powers under this Code throughout any local area is appointed to an equal or higher office of the same nature, within a like local area under the same State Government, he shall, unless the High Court or the State Government, as the case may be, otherwise directs, or has otherwise directed, exercise the same powers in the local area in which he is so appointed.

34. Withdrawal of powers

(1) The High Court or the state Government, as the case may be, may withdraw all or any of the powers conferred by it under this Code on any person or by any officer subordinate to it.
(2) Any powers conferred by the Chief Judicial Magistrate or by the District Magistrate may be withdrawn by the respective Magistrate by whom such powers were conferred.

35. Powers of Judges and Magistrates exercisable by their successors-in-office

(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Code, the powers and duties of a Judge or Magistrate may be exercised or performed by his successor-in-office.

(2) When there is any doubt as to who is the successor-in-office of any Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge, the Sessions Judge shall determine by order in writing the Judge who shall, for the purposes of this Code or of any proceeding or order thereunder, be deemed to be the successor-in-office of such Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge.

(3) When there is any doubt as to who is the successor-in-office of any Magistrate, the Chief Judicial Magistrate, or the District Magistrate, as the case may be, shall determine by order in writing the Magistrate who shall, for the purposes of this Code or of any proceedings or order thereunder, be deemed to be the successor-in-office of such Magistrate.

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Chapter IV

A. — POWERS OF SUPERIOR OFFICERS OF POLICE

36. Powers of superior officers of police: Powers of superior officers of police

Police officers superior in rank to an officer in charge of a police station may exercise the same powers, throughout the local area to which they are appointed, as may be exercised by such officer within the limits of his station.

B. — AID TO THE MAGISTRATES AND POLICE

37. Public when to assist Magistrates and police

Every person is bound to assist a Magistrate or police officer reasonably demanding his aid-
(a)in the taking or preventing the escape of any other person whom such Magistrate or police officer is authorised to arrest; or
(b)in the prevention or suppression of a breach of the peace; or
(c)in the prevention of any injury attempted to be committed to any railway, canal, telegraph or public property.

38. Aid to person other than police officer, executing warrant

When a warrant is directed to a person other than a police officer, any person may aid in the execution of such warrant, if the person to whom the warrant is directed be near at hand and acting in the execution of the warrant.

39. Public to give information of certain offences

( 1 ) Every person, aware of the Commission of, or of the intention of any other person to commit, any offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860 ), namely :–
(i)sections 121 to 126, both inclusive, and section 130 (that is to say offences against the state specified in Chapter VI of the said Code);
(ii)sections 143 , 144 , 145 , 147 and 148 (that is to say, offences against the public tranquility specified in Chapter VIII of the said Code);
(iii)sections 161 to 165 A, both inclusive (that is to say, offences relating to illegal gratification);
(iv)sections 272 to 278, both inclusive (that is to say, offences relating to adulteration of food and drugs, etc.);
(v)sections 302 , 303 and 304 (that is to say, offences affecting life);
(va)section 364 A (that is to say, offence relating to kidnapping for ransom, etc.);
(vi)section 382 (that is to say, offence of theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft);
(vii)sections 392 to 399 , both inclusive, and section 402 (that is to say, offences of robbery and dacoity);
(viii)section 409 (that is to say, offence relating to criminal breach of trust by public servant, etc.);
(ix)sections 431 to 439 , both inclusive (mat is to say, offence of mischief against property);
(x)sections 449 and 450 (that is to say, offence of house-trespass);
(xi)sections 456 to 460 , both inclusive (that is to say, offences of lurking house- trespass); and
(xii)sections 489A to 489E, both inclusive (that is to say, offences relating to currency notes and bank notes).
shall, in the absence of any reasonable excuse, the burden of proving which excuse shall lie upon the person so aware, forthwith give information to the nearest Magistrate or police officer of such Commission or intention;
( 2 ) For the purposes of this section, the term “offence” includes any act committed at any place out of India which would constitute an offence if committed in India.

40. Duty of officers employed in connection with the affairs of a village to make certain report

(1) Every officer employed in connection with the affairs of a village and every person residing in a village shall forthwith communicate to the nearest Magistrate or to the officer in charge of the nearest police station, whichever is nearer, any information which he may possess respecting—
(a)the permanent or temporary residence of any notorious receiver or vendor of stolen property in or near such village;
(b)the resort to any place within, or the passage through, such village of any person whom he knows, or reasonably suspects, to be a thug, robber, escaped convict or proclaimed offender;
(c)the Commission of, or intention to commit, in or near such village any non-bailable offence or any offence punishable under section 143, section 144, section 145, section 147 or section 148 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);
(d)the occurrence in or near such village of any sudden or unnatural death or of any death under suspicious circumstances or the discovery in or near such village of any corpse or part of a corpse, in circumstances which lead to a reasonable suspicion that such a death has occurred or the disappearance from such village of any person in circumstances which lead to a reasonable suspicion that a non-bailable offence has been committed in respect of such person;
(e)the Commission of, or intention to commit, at any place out of India near such village any act which, if committed in India, would be an offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely, sections 231 to 238 (both inclusive), sections 302, 304, 382, 392 to 399 (both inclusive), 402, 435, 436, 449, 457, to 460 (both inclusive), sections 489A, 489B, 489C and 489D;
(f)any matter likely to affect the maintenance of order of the prevention of crime or the safety of person or property respecting which the District Magistrate by general or special order made with the previous sanction of the State Government, has directed him to communicate information.

(2) In this section,—
(i)”village” includes village-lands;
(ii)the expression “proclaimed offender” includes any person proclaimed as an offender by any Court or authority in any territory in India to which this code does not extend, in respect of any act which if committed in the territories to which this Code extends, would be an offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely, sections 302, 304, 382, 392 to 399 (both inclusive), sections 402, 435, 436, 449, 450 and 457 to 460 (both inclusive);
(iii)the words “officer employed in connection with the affairs of the village” means a member of the panchayat of the village and includes the headman and every officer or other person appointed to perform any function connected with the administration of the village.

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Chapter V – Arrest of Persons[s 41 to 60A]

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Chapter VI

Processes to Compel Appearance

A. — Summons

61. Form of summons

Every summons issued by a Court under this Code shall be in writing, in duplicate, signed by the presiding officer of such Court or by such other officer as the High Court may, from time to time, by rule direct, and shall bear the seal of the Court.

62. Summons how served

(1) Every summons shall be served by a police officer, or subject to such rules as the State Government may make in this behalf, by an officer of the Court issuing it or other public servant.
(2)
The summons shall, if practicable, be served personally on the person summoned, by delivering or tendering to him one of the duplicates of the summons.
(3)
Every person on whom a summons is so served shall, if so required by the serving officer, sign a receipt therefore on the back of the other duplicate.

63. Service of summons on corporate bodies and societies

Service of a summons on a corporation may be effected by serving it on the secretary, local manager or other principal officer of the corporation, or by letter sent by registered post, addressed to the chief officer of the corporation in India, in which case the service shall be deemed, to have been effected when the letter would arrive in ordinary course of post.

Explanation.—In this section “corporation” means an incorporated company or other body corporate and includes a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860).

64. Service when persons summoned cannot be found

Where the person summoned cannot, by the exercise of due diligence, be found, the summons may be served by leaving one of the duplicates for him with some adult male member of his family residing with him, and the person with whom the summons is so left shall, if so required by the serving officer, sign a receipt therefor on the back of the other duplicate.
Explanation.—A servant is not a member of the family within the meaning of this section.

65. Procedure when service cannot be effected as before provided

If service cannot by the exercise of due diligence be effected as provided in section 62, section 63 or section 64, the serving officer shall affix one of the duplicates of the summons to some conspicuous part of the house or homestead in which the person summoned ordinarily resides; and thereupon the Court, after making such inquiries as it thinks fit, may either declare that the summons has been duly served or order fresh service in such manner as it considers proper.

66. Service on Government servant

(1) Where the person summoned is in the active service of the Government, the Court issuing the summons shall ordinarily send it in duplicate to the head of the office in which such person is employed; and such head shall thereupon cause the summons to be served in the manner provided by section 62, and shall return it to the Court under his signature with the endorsement required by that section.
(2) Such signature shall be evidence of due service.

67. Service of summons outside local limits

When a Court desires that a summons issued by it shall be served at any place outside its local jurisdiction, it shall ordinarily send summons in duplicate to a Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction the person summoned resides, or is, to be there served.

68. Proof of service in such cases and when serving officer not present

(1) When a summons issued by a Court is served outside its local jurisdiction, and in any case where the officer who has served a summons is not present at the hearing of the case, an affidavit, purporting to be made before a Magistrate, that such summons has been served, and a duplicate of the summons purporting to be endorsed (in the manner provided by section 62 or section 64) by the person to whom it was delivered or tendered or with whom it was left, shall be admissible in evidence, and the statements made therein shall be deemed to be correct unless and until the contrary is proved.

(2) The affidavit mentioned in this section may be attached to the duplicate of the summons and returned to the Court.

69. Service of summons on witness by post

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding section of this Chapter, a Court issuing a summons to a witness may, in addition to and simultaneously with the issue of such summons, direct a copy of the summons to be served by registered post addressed to the witness at the place where he ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

(2) When an acknowledgment purporting to be signed by the witness or an endorsement purporting to be made by a postal employee that the witness refused to take delivery of the summons has been received, the Court issuing the summons may declare that the summons has been duly served.

B. — Warrant of arrest

70. Form of warrant of arrest and duration

(1) Every warrant of arrest issued by a Court under this Code shall be in writing, signed by the presiding officer of such Court and shall bear the seal of the Court.
(2) Every such warrant shall remain in force until it is cancelled by the Court which issued it, or until it is executed.

71. Power to direct security to be taken

(1) Any Court issuing a warrant for the arrest of any person may in its discretion direct by endorsement on the warrant that, if such person executes a bond with sufficient sureties for his attendance before the Court at a specified time and thereafter until otherwise directed by the Court the officer to whom the warrant is directed shall take such security and shall release such person from custody.
(2) The endorsement shall State—
(a)the number of sureties;
(b)the amount in which they and the person for whose arrest the warrant is issued, are to be respectively bound;
(c)the time at which he is to attend before the Court.
(3) Whenever security is taken under this section, the officer to whom the warrant is directed shall forward the bond to the Court.

72. Warrants to whom directed

(1) A warrant of arrest shall ordinarily be directed to one or more police officers; but the Court issuing such a warrant may, if its immediate execution is necessary and no police officer is immediately available, direct it to any other person or persons, and such person or persons shall execute the same.
(2) When a warrant is directed to more officers or persons than one, it may be executed by all, or by any one or more of them.

73. Warrant may be directed to any person

(1) The Chief Judicial Magistrate or a Magistrate of the first class may direct a warrant to any person within his local jurisdiction for the arrest of any escaped convict, proclaimed offender or of any person who is accused of a non-bailable offence and is evading arrest.
(2) Such person shall acknowledge in writing the receipt of the warrant, and shall execute it if the person for whose arrest it was issued, is in, or enters on, any land or other property under his charge.
(3) When the person against whom such warrant is issued is arrested, he shall be made over with the warrant to the nearest police officer, who shall cause him to be taken before a Magistrate having jurisdiction in the case, unless security is taken under section 71.

74. Warrant directed to police officer

A warrant directed to any police officer may also be executed by any other police officer whose name is endorsed upon the warrant by the officer to whom it is directed or endorsed.

75. Notification of substance of warrant

The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall notify the substance thereof to the person to be arrested, and, if so required, shall show him the warrant.

76. Person arrested to be brought before Court without delay

The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall (subject to the provisions of section 71 as to security) without unnecessary delay bring the person arrested before the Court before which he is required by law to produce such person:
Provided that such delay shall not, in any case, exceed twenty-four hours exclusive of the lime necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the Magistrate’s Court.

77. Where warrant may be executed

A warrant of arrest may be executed at any place in India.

78. Warrant forwarded for execution outside jurisdiction

(1) When a warrant is to be executed outside the local jurisdiction of the Court issuing it, such Court may, instead of directing the warrant to a police officer within its jurisdiction, forward it by post or otherwise to any Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent of Police or Commissioner of Police within the local limits of whose jurisdiction it is to be executed; and the Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent or Commissioner shall endorse his name thereon, and if practicable, cause it to be executed in the manner hereinbefore provided.
(2) The Court issuing a warrant under sub-section (1) shall forward, along with the warrant, the substance of the information against the person to be arrested together with such documents, if any, as may be sufficient to enable the Court acting under section 81 to decide whether bail should or should not be granted to the person.

79. Warrant directed to police officer for execution outside jurisdiction

(1) When a warrant directed to a police officer is to be executed beyond the local jurisdiction of the Court issuing the same, he shall ordinarily take it for endorsement either to an Executive Magistrate or to a police officer not below the rank of an officer in charge of a police station, within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the warrant is to be executed.
(2) Such Magistrate or police officer shall endorse his name thereon and such endorsement shall be sufficient authority to the police officer to whom the warrant is directed to execute the same, and the local police shall, if so required, assist such officer in executing such warrant.
(3) Whenever there is reason to believe that the delay occasioned by obtaining the endorsement of the Magistrate or police officer within whose local jurisdiction the warrant is to be executed will prevent such execution, the police officer to whom it is directed may execute the same without such endorsement in any place beyond the local jurisdiction of the Court which issued it.

80. Procedure of arrest of person against whom warrant issued

When a warrant of arrest is executed outside the district in which it was issued, the person arrested shall, unless the Court which issued the warrant is within thirty kilometres of the place of arrest or is nearer than the Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent of Police or Commissioner of Police within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the arrest was made, or unless security is taken under section 71, be taken before such Magistrate or District Superintendent or Commissioner.

81. Procedure by Magistrate before whom such person arrested is brought

(1) The Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent of Police or Commissioner of Police shall, if the person arrested appears to be the person intended by the Court which issued the warrant, direct his removal in custody to such Court:
Provided that, if the offence is bailable, and such person is ready and willing to give bail to the satisfaction of such Magistrate, District Superintendent or Commissioner, or a direction has been endorsed under section 71 on the warrant and such person is ready and willing to give the security required by such direction, the Magistrate, District Superintendent or Commissioner shall take such bail or security, as the case may be, and forward the bond, to the Court which issued the warrant:
Provided further that if the offence is a non-bailable one, it shall be lawful for the Chief Judicial Magistrate (subject to the provisions of section 437), or the Sessions Judge, of the district in which the arrest is made on consideration of the information and the documents referred to in sub-section (2) of section 78 to release such person on bail.
(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent a police officer from taking security under section 71.

C. — Proclamation and attachment

82. Proclamation for person absconding

(1) If Any Court has reason to believe (whether after taking evidence or not) that any person against whom a warrant has been issued by it has absconded or is concealing himself so that such warrant cannot be executed, such Court may publish a written proclamation requiring hi m to appear at a specific place and at a specified time not less than thirty days from the date of publishing such proclamation.

(2) The proclamation shall be published as follows: –
(i) (a)it shall be publicly read in some conspicuous place of the town or village in which such person ordinarily resides;
(b)it shall be affixed to some conspicuous part of the house or home-stead in which such person ordinarily resides or to some conspicuous place of such town or village;
(c)a copy thereof shall be affixed to some conspicuous part of the Court­ house;
(ii)the Court may also, if it thinks fit, direct a copy of the proclamation to be published in a daily newspaper circulating in the place in which such person ordinarily resides.
(3)
A statement in writing by the Court issuing the proclamation to the effect that the proclamation was duly published on a specified day, in the manner specified in clause (i) of sub-section (2), shall be conclusive evidence that the requirements of this section have been complied with, and that the proclamation was published on such day.
(4)
Where a proclamation published under sub-section (1) is in respect of a person accused of an offence punishable under section 302, 304, 364, 367, 382, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402, 436, 449, 459 or 460 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) and such person fails to appear at the specified place and time required by the proclamation, the Court may, after making such inquiry as it thinks fit, pronounce him a proclaimed offender and make a declaration to that effect.
(5)
The provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) shall apply to a declaration made by the Court under sub-section (4) as they apply to the proclamation published under sub-section (1).
83. Attachment of property of person absconding

(1)
The Court issuing a proclamation under section 82 may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, at any time after the issue of the proclamation, order the attachment of any property, movable or immovable, or both, belonging to the proclaimed person:
Provided that where at the time of the issue of the proclamation the Court is satisfied, by affidavit or otherwise, that the person in relation to whom the proclamation is to be issued, —
(a)is about to dispose of the whole or any part of his property, or
(b)is about to remove the whole or any part of his property from the local jurisdiction of the Court,
it may order the attachment simultaneously with the issue of the proclamation.
(2)
Such order shall authorise the attachment of any property belonging to such person within the district in which it is made; and it shall authorise the attachment of any property belonging to such person without such district when endorsed by the District Magistrate within whose district such property is situate.
(3)
If the property ordered to be attached is a debt or other movable property, the attachment under this section shall be made—
(a)by seizure; or
(b)by the appointment of a receiver; or
(c)by an order in writing prohibiting the delivery of such property to the proclaimed person or to any one on his behalf; or
(d)by all or any two of such methods, as the Court thinks fit.
(4)
If the property ordered to be attached is immovable, the attachment under this section shall, in the case of land paying revenue to the State Government, be made through the Collector of the district in which the land is situate, and in all other cases—
(a)by taking possession; or
(b)by the appointment of a receiver; or
(c)by an order in writing prohibiting the payment of rent on delivery of property to the proclaimed person or to any one on his behalf; or
(d)by all or any two of such methods, as the Court thinks fit.
(5)
If the property ordered to be attached consists of live-stock or is of a perishable nature, the Court may, if it thinks it expedient, order immediate sale thereof, and in such case the proceeds of the sale shall abide the order of the Court.
(6)
The powers, duties and liabilities of a receiver appointed under this section shall be the same as those of a receiver appointed under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).

84. Claims and objections to attachment

(1) If any claim is preferred to, or objection made to the attachment of, any property attached under section 83, within six months from the date of such attachment, by any person other than the proclaimed person, on the ground that the claimant or objector has an interest in such property, and that such interest is not liable to attachment under section 83, the claim or objection shall be inquired into, and may be allowed or disallowed in whole or in part:

Provided that any claim preferred or objection made within the period allowed by this sub-section may, in the event of the death of the claimant or objector, be continued by his legal representative.
(2) Claims or objections under sub-section (1) may be preferred or made in the Court by which the order of attachment is issued, or, if the claim or objection is in respect of property attached under an order endorsed under sub-section (2) of section 83, in the Court of the Chief Judicial Magistrate of the district in which the attachment is made.
(3) Every such claim or objection shall be inquired into by the Court in which it is preferred or made:
Provided that, if it is preferred or made in the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate, he may make it over for disposal to any Magistrate subordinate to him.
(4) Any person whose claim or objection has been disallowed in whole or in part by an order under sub-section (1) may, within a period of one year from the date of such order, institute a suit to establish the right which he claims in respect of the property in dispute; but subject to the result of such suit, if any, the order shall be conclusive.

85. Release, sale and restoration of attached property

(1) If the proclaimed person appears within the time specified in the proclamation, the Court shall make an order releasing the property from the attachment.
(2) If the proclaimed person does not appear within the time specified in the proclamation, the property under the attachment shall be at the disposal of the State Government; but it shall not be sold until the expiration of six months from the date of the attachment and until any claim preferred or objection made under section 84 has been disposed of under that section; unless it is subject to speedy and natural decay, or the Court considers that the sale would be for the benefit of the owner, in cither of which oases the Court may cause it to be sold whenever it thinks fit.
(3) If, within two years from the date of the attachment, any person whose property is or has been at the disposal of the State Government, under sub-section (2), appears voluntarily or is apprehended and brought before the Court by whose order the property was attached, or the Court to which such Court is subordinate, and proves to the satisfaction of such Court that he did not abscond or conceal himself for the purpose of avoiding execution of the warrant, and that he had not such notice of the proclamation as to enable him to attend within the time specified therein, such property, or, if the same has been sold, the net proceeds of the sale, or, if part only thereof has been sold, the net proceeds of the sale and the residue of the property, shall, after satisfying therefrom all costs incurred in consequence of the attachment, be delivered to him.

86. Appeal from order rejecting application for restoration of attached property

Any person referred to in sub-section (3) of section 85, who is aggrieved by any refusal to deliver property or the proceeds of the sale thereof may appeal to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from the sentences of the first-mentioned Court.

D. — Other rules regarding processes

87. Issue of warrant in lieu of, or in addition to, summons

A Court may, in any case in which it is empowered by this Code to issue a summons for the appearance of any person, issue, after recording its reasons in writing, a warrant for his arrest—
(a)if, either before the issue of such summons, or after the issue of the same but before the time fixed for his appearance, the Court sees reason to believe that he has absconded or will not obey the summons; or
(b)if at such time he fails to appear and the summons is proved to have been duly served in time to admit of his appearing in accordance therewith and no reasonable excuse is offered for such failure.

88. Power to take bond for appearance

When any person for whose appearance or arrest the officer presiding in any Court is empowered to issue a summons or warrant, is present in such Court, such officer may require such person to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his appearance in such Court, or any other Court to which the case may be transferred for trial.

89. Arrest on breach of bond for appearance

When any person who is bound by any bond taken under this Code to appear before a Court, does not appear, the officer presiding in such Court may issue a warrant directing that such person be arrested and produced before him.

90. Provisions of this Chapter generally applicable to summons and warrants of arrest

The provisions contained in this Chapter relating to a summons and warrants, and their issue, service and execution, shall, so far as may be, apply to every summons and every warrant of arrest issued under this Code.

Devider

Chapter VII

Processes to Compel the Production of Things

A. — Summons to produce

91. Summons to produce document or other thing

(1) Whenever any Court or any officer in charge of a police station considers that the production of any document or other thing is necessary or desirable for the purposes of any investigation, inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code by or before such Court or officer, such Court may issue a summons, or such officer a written order, to the person in whose possession or power such document or thing is believed to be, requiring him to attend and produce it, or to produce it, at the time and place stated in the summons or order.
(2)
Any person required under this section merely to produce a document or other thing shall be deemed to have complied with the requisition if he causes such document or thing to be produced instead of attending personally to produce the same.
(3)
Nothing in this section shall be deemed–
(a)to affect, sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872(1 of 1872), or the Bankers, Books Evidence Act, 1891 (13 of 1891), or
(b)to apply to a letter, postcard, telegram or other document or any parcel or thing in the custody of the postal or telegraph authority.

92. Procedure as to letters and telegrams

(1) If any document, parcel or thing in the custody of a postal or telegraph authority is, in the opinion of the District Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate, Court of Session or High Court wanted for the purpose of any investigation, inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, such Magistrate or Court may require the postal or telegraph authority, as the case may be, to deliver the document, parcel or thing to such person as the Magistrate or Court directs.

(2) If any such document, parcel or thing is, in the opinion of any other Magistrate, whether Executive or Judicial, or of any Commissioner of police or District Superintendent of Police, wanted for any such purpose, he may require the postal or telegraph authority, as the case may be, to cause search to be made for and to detain such document, parcel or thing pending the order of a District Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate or Court under sub-section (1).

B. — Search-warrants

93. When search-warrant may be issued

(1) (a)Where any Court has reason to believe that a person to whom a summons or order under section 91 or a requisition under sub-section (1) of section 92 has been, or might be, addressed, will not or would not produce the document or thing as required by such summons or requisition, or
(b)where such document or thing is not known to the Court to be in the possession of any person, or
(c)where the Court considers that the purposes of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code will be served by a general search or inspection,
it may issue a search-warrant; and the person to whom such warrant is directed, may search or inspect in accordance therewith and the provisions hereinafter contained.
(2)
The Court may, if it thinks fit, specify in the warrant the particular place or part thereof to which only the search or inspection shall extend; and the person charged with the execution of such warrant shall then search or inspect only the place or part so specified.
(3)
Nothing contained in this section shall authorise any Magistrate other than a District Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate to grant a warrant to search for a document, parcel or other thing in the custody of the postal or telegraph authority.

94. Search of place suspected to contain stolen property, forged documents, etc

(1) If a District Magistrate, Sub-divisional Magistrate or Magistrate of the first class, upon information and after such inquiry as he thinks necessary, has reason to believe that any place is used for the deposit or sale of stolen property, or for the deposit, sale or production of any objectionable article to which this section applies, or that any such objectionable article is deposited in any place, he may by warrant authorise any police officer above the rank of a constable–
(a)to enter, with such assistance as may be required, such place,
(b)to search the same in the manner specified in the warrant,
(c)to take possession of any property or article therein found which he reasonably suspects to be stolen property or objectionable article to which this section applies,
(d)to convey such property or article before a Magistrate, or to guard the same on the spot until the offender is taken before a Magistrate, or otherwise to dispose of it in some place of safely,
(e)to take into custody and carry before a Magistrate every person found in such place who appears to have been privy to the deposit, sale or production of any such property or article knowing or having reasonable cause to suspect it to be stolen property or, as the case may be, objectionable article to which this section applies.

(2) The objectionable articles to which this section applies are—
(a)counterfeit coin;
(b)pieces of metal made in contravention of the Metal Tokens Act, 1889 (1 of 1889), or brought into India in contravention of any notification for the time being in force under section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962);
(c)counterfeit currency note; counterfeit stamps;
(d)forged documents;
(e)false seals;
(f)obscene objects referred to in section 292 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);
(g)instruments or materials used for the production of any of the articles mentioned in clauses (a) to (f).

95. Power to declare certain publications forfeited and to issue search-warrants for the same

(1) Where—
(a)any newspaper, or book, or
(b)any document,
wherever printed appears to the State Government to contain any matter the publication of which is punishable under section 124A or section 153A or section 153B or section 292 or section 293 or section 295A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), the State Government may, by notification, stating the grounds of its opinion, declare every copy of the issue of the newspaper containing such matter, and every copy of such book or other document to be forfeited to Government, and thereupon any police officer may seize the same wherever found in India and any Magistrate may by warrant authorise any police officer not below the rank of sub-inspector to enter upon and search for the same in any premises where any copy of such issue or any such book or other document may be or may be reasonably suspected to be.
(2) In this section and in section 96,–
(a)”newspaper” and “book” have the same meaning as in the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 (25 of 1867);
(b)”document” includes any painting, drawing or photograph, or other visible representation.
(3) No order passed or action taken under this section shall be called in question in any Court otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of section 96.

96. Application to High Court to set aside declaration of forfeiture

(1) Any person having any interest in any newspaper, book or other document, in respect of which a declaration of forfeiture has been made under section 95, may, within two months from the date of publication in the Official Gazette of such declaration, apply to the High Court to set aside such declaration on the ground that the issue of the newspaper, or the book or other document, in respect of which the declaration was made, did not contain any such matter as is referred to in sub-section (1) of section 95.
(2) Every such application shall, where the High Court consists of three or more Judges, be heard and determined by a Special Bench of the High Court composed of three Judges and where the High Court consists of less than three Judges, such Special Bench shall be composed of all the Judges of that High Court.
(3) On the hearing of any such application with reference to any newspaper, any copy of such newspaper may be given in evidence in aid of the proof of the nature or tendency of the words, signs or visible representations contained in such newspaper, in respect of which the declaration of forfeiture was made.
(4)
The High Court shall, if it is not satisfied that the issue of the newspaper, or the book or other document, in respect of which the application has been made, contained any such matter as is referred to in sub-section (1) of section 95, set aside the declaration of forfeiture.
(5)
Where there is a difference of opinion among the Judges forming the Special Bench, the decision shall be in accordance with the opinion of the majority of those Judges.

97. Search for persons wrongfully confined

If any District Magistrate, Sub-divisional Magistrate or Magistrate of the first class has reason to believe that any person is confined under such circumstances that the confinement amounts to an offence, he may issue, a search-warrant, and the person to whom such warrant is directed may search for the person so confined; and such search shall be made in accordance therewith, and the person, if found, shall be immediately taken before a Magistrate, who shall make such order as in the circumstances of the case seems proper.

98. Power to compel restoration of abducted females

Upon complaint made on oath of the abduction or unlawful detention of a woman, or a female child under the age of eighteen years, for any unlawful purpose, a District Magistrate, Sub-divisional Magistrate or Magistrate of the first class may make an order for the immediate restoration of such woman to her liberty, or of such female child to her husband, parent, guardian or other person having the lawful charge or such child, and may compel compliance with such order, using such force as may be necessary.

C. — General provisions relating to searches

99. Direction, etc., of search-warrants

The provisions of sections 38, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78 and 79 shall, so far as may be, apply to all search-warrants issued under section 93, section 94, section 95 or section 97.

100. Persons in charge of closed place to allow search

(1) Whenever any place liable to search of inspection under this Chapter is closed, any person residing in, or being in charge of, such place, shall, on demand of the officer or other person executing the warrant, and on production of the warrant, allow him free ingress thereto, and afford all reasonable facilities for a search therein.
(2) If ingress into such place cannot be so obtained, the officer or other person executing the warrant may proceed in the manner provided by sub-section (2) of section 47.
(3) Where any person in or about such place is reasonably suspected of concealing about his person any article for which search should be made, such person may be searched and if such person is a woman, the search shall be made by another woman with strict regard to decency.
(4) Before making a search under this Chapter, the officer or other person about to make it shall call upon two or more independent and respectable inhabitants of the locality in which the place to be searched is situate or of any other locality if no such inhabitant of the said locality is available or is willing to be a witness to the search, to attend and witness the search and may issue an order in writing to them or any of them so to do.
(5) The search shall be made in their presence, and a list of all things seized in the course of such search and of the places in which they are respectively found shall be prepared by such officer or other person and signed by such witnesses; but no person witnessing a search under this section shall be required to attend the Court as a witness of the search unless specially summoned by it.
(6) The occupant of the place searched, or some person in his behalf, shall, in every instance, be permitted to attend during the search, and a copy of the list prepared under this section, signed by the said witnesses, shall be delivered to such occupant or person.
(7) When any person is searched under sub-section (3), a list of all things taken possession of shall be prepared, and a copy thereof shall be delivered to such person.
(8) Any person who, without reasonable cause, refuses or neglects to attend and witness a search under this section, when called upon to do so by an order in writing delivered or tendered to him, shall be deemed to have committed an offence under section 187 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

101. Disposal of things found in search beyond jurisdiction

When, in the execution of a search-warrant at any place beyond the local jurisdiction of the Court which issued the same, any of the things for which search is made, arc found, such things, together with the list of the same prepared under me provisions hereinafter contained, shall be immediately taken before the Court issuing the warrant, unless such place is nearer to the Magistrate having jurisdiction therein than to such Court, in which case the list and things shall be immediately taken before such Magistrate; and unless there be good cause to the contrary, such Magistrate shall make an order authorising them to be taken to such Court.

D. — Miscellaneous

102. Power of police officer to seize certain property

(1) Any police officer may seize any property which may be alleged or suspected to have been stolen, or which may be found under circumstances which create suspicion of the Commission of any offence.

(2) Such police officer, if subordinate to the officer in charge of a police station, shall forthwith report the seizure to that officer.

(3) Every police officer acting under sub-section (1) shall forthwith report the seizure to the Magistrate having jurisdiction and where the property seized is such that it cannot be, conveniently transported to the Court or where there is difficulty in securing proper accommodation for the custody of such property, or where the continued retention of the property in police custody may not be considered necessary for the purpose of investigation, he may give custody thereof to any person on his executing a bond undertaking to produce the property before the Court as and when required and to give effect to the further orders of the Court as to the disposal of the same.

Provided that where the property seized under sub-section (1) is subject to speedy and natural decay and if the person entitled to the possession of such property is unknown or absent and the value of such property is less than five hundred rupees, it may forthwith be sold by auction under the orders of the Superintendent of Police and the provisions of sections 457 and 458 shall, as nearly as may be practicable, apply to the net proceeds of such sale.

103. Magistrate may direct search in his presence

Any Magistrate may direct a search to be made in his presence of any place for the search of which he is competent to issue a search warrant.

104. Power to impound document, etc., produced

Any Court may, if it thinks fit, impound any document or thing produced before it under this Code.

105. Reciprocal arrangements regarding processes

(1) Where a Court in the territories to which this Code extends thereafter in this section referred to as the said territories desires that-
(a)a summons to an accused person, or
(b)a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or
(c)a summons to any person requiring hi m to attend and produce a document or other thing, or to produce it, or
(d)a search-warrant,
issued by it shall be served or executed at any place,-
(i)within the local jurisdiction of a Court in any State or area in India outside the said territories, it may send such summons or warrant in duplicate by post or otherwise, to the presiding officer of that Court to be served or executed; and where any summons referred to in clause (a) or clause (c) has been so served, the provisions of section 68 shall apply in relation to such summons as if the presiding officer of the Court to whom it is sent were a Magistrate in the said territories;
(ii)in any country of place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country or place for service or execution of summons or warrant in relation to criminal matters thereafter in this section referred to as the contracting State), it may send such summons or warrant in duplicate in such form, directed to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, and sent to such authority for transmission, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

(2) Where a Court in the said territories has received for service or execution-
(a)a summons to an accused person, or
(b)a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or
(c)a summons to any person requiring hi m to attend and produce a document or other things or to produce it, or
(d)a search-warrant,
issued by-
(i)a Court in any State or are in India outside the said territories;
(ii)a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State,
it shall cause the same to be served or executed as if it were a summons or warrant received by it from another Court in the said territories for service or execution within its local jurisdiction; and where-
(i)a warrant of arrest has been executed, the person arrested shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance with the procedure prescribed by sections 80 and 81;
(ii)a search warrant has been executed, the things found in the search shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance with the procedure prescribed by section 101:
Provided that in a case where a summons or search warrant received from a contracting State has been executed, the documents or things produced or things found in the search shall be forwarded to the Court issuing the summons or search warrant through such authority as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

Devider

Chapter VIIA

Reciprocal Arrangements for Assistance in Certain Matters and Procedure for Attachment and Forfeiture of Property

105A. Definitions

In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(a)”contracting State” means any country or place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country through a treaty or otherwise;
(b)”identifying” includes establishment of a proof that the property was derived from, or used in, the Commission of an offence;
(c)”proceeds of crime” means any property derived or obtained directly or indirectly, by any person as a result of criminal activity (including crime involving currency transfers) or the value of any such property;
(d)”property” means property and assets of every description whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable tangible or intangible and deeds and instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such property or assets derived or used in the Commission of an offence and includes properly obtained through proceeds of crime;
(e)”tracing” means determining the nature source, disposition, movement, title or ownership of property.

105B. Assistance in securing transfer of persons

(1)
Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, desires that a warrant for arrest of any person to attend or produce a document or other thing issued by it shall be executed in any place in a contracting State, it shall send such warrant induplicate in such form to such Court, Judge or Magistrate through such authority, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf and that Court, Judge or Magistrate, as the case may be, shall cause the same to be executed.
(2)
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, if, in the course of an investigation or any inquiry into an offence, an application is made by the investigating officer or any officer superior in rank to the investigating officer that the attendance of a person who is in any place in a contracting State is required in connection with such investigation or inquiry and the Court is satisfied that such attendance is so required, it shall issue a summons or warrant, in duplicate, against the said person to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, in such form as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, to cause the same to be served or executed.
(3)
Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, has received a warrant for arrest of any person requiring him to attend or attend and produce a document or other thing in that Court or before any other investigating agency, issued by a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State, the same shall be executed as if it is the warrant received by it from another Court in India for execution within its local limits.
(4)
Where a person transferred to a contracting State pursuant to sub-section (3) is a prisoner in India, the Court in India or the Central Government may impose such conditions as that Court or Government deems fit.
(5)
Where the person transferred to India pursuant to sub-section (1), or sub-section (2) is a prisoner in a contracting State, the Court in India shall ensure that the conditions subject to which the prisoner is transferred to India are complied with and such prisoner shall be kept in such custody subject to such conditions as the Central Government may direct in writing.

105C. Assistance in relation to orders of attachment or forfeiture of property

(1)
Where a Court in India has reasonable grounds to believe that any property obtained by any person is derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by such person from the commission of an offence, it may make an order of attachment or forfeiture of such property, as it may deem fit under the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive).
(2)
Where the Court has made an order for attachment or forfeiture of any property under sub-section (1), and such property is suspected to be in a contracting State, the Court may issue a letter of request to a Court or an authority in the contracting State for execution of such order.
(3)
Where a letter of request is received by the Central Government from a Court or an authority in a contracting State requesting attachment or forfeiture of the property in India, derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by any person from the commission of an offence committed in that contracting State, the Central Government may forward such letter of request to the Court, as it thinks fit, for execution in accordance with the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive) or, as the case may be, any other law for the time being in force.

105D. Identifying unlawfully acquired property

(1)
The Court shall, under sub­section (1), or on receipt of a letter of request under sub-section (3) of section 105C, direct any police officer not below the rank of Sub-Inspector of Police to take all steps necessary for tracing and identifying such property.
(2)
The steps referred to in sub-section (1) may include any inquiry, investigation or survey in respect of any person, place, property, assets, documents, books of account in any bank or public financial institutions or any other relevant matters.
(3)
Any inquiry, investigation or survey referred to in sub-section (2) shall be carried out by an officer mentioned in sub-section (I) in accordance with such directions issued by the said Court in this behalf.

105E. Seizure or attachment of property

(1)
Where any officer conducting an inquiry or investigation under section 105D has a reason to believe that any property in relation to which such inquiry or investigation is being conducted is likely to be concealed, transferred or dealt with in any manner which will result in disposal of such property, he may make an order for seizing such property and where it is not practicable to seize such property, he may make an order of attachment directing that such property shall not be transferred or otherwise dealt with, except with the prior permission of the officer making such order, and a copy of such order shall be served on the person concerned.
(2)
Any order made under sub-section (1) shall have no effect unless the said order is confirmed by an order of the said Court, within a period of thirty days of its being made.

105F. Management of properties seized or forfeited under this Chapter

(1)
The Court may appoint the District Magistrate of the area where the property is situated, or any other officer that may be nominated by the District Magistrate, to perform the functions of an Administrator of such property.
(2)
The Administrator appointed under sub-section (1) shall receive and manage the property in relation to which the order has been made under sub-section (I) of section 105E or under section 105H in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be specified by the Central Government.
(3)
The Administrator shall also take such measures, as the Central Government may direct, to dispose of the property which is forfeited to the Central Government.

105G. Notice of forfeiture of property

(1)
If as a result of the inquiry, investigation or survey under section 105D, the Court has reason to believe that all or any of such properties are proceeds of crime, it may serve a notice upon such person thereinafter referred to as the person affected) calling upon him within a period of thirty days specified in the notice to indicate the source of income, earning or assets, out of which or by means of which he has acquired such property, the evidence on which he relies and other relevant information and particulars, and to show cause why all or any of such properties, as the case may be, should not be declared to be proceeds of crime and forfeited to the Central Government.
(2)
Where a notice under sub-section (1) to any person specifies any property as being held on behalf of such person by any other person, a copy of the notice shall also be served upon such other person.

105H. Forfeiture of property in certain cases

(1)
The Court may, after considering the explanation, if any, to the show-cause notice issued under section 105G and the material available before it and after giving to the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice through any other person, to such other person also) a reasonable opportunity of being heard, by order, record a finding whether all or any of the properties in question are proceeds of crime:
Provided that if the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice through any other person such other person also) does not appear before the Court or represent his case before it within a period of thirty days specified in the show-cause notice, the Court may proceed to record a finding under this sub-section ex parte on the basis of evidence available before it.
(2)
Where the Court is satisfied that some of the properties referred to in the show cause notice are proceeds of crime but it is not possible to identify specifically such properties, then, it shall be lawful for the Court to specify the properties which, to the best of its judgement, are proceeds of crime and record a finding accordingly under sub­section (1).
(3)
Where the Court records a finding under this section to the effect that any property is proceeds of crime, such property shall stand forfeited to the Central Government free from all encumbrances.
(4)
Where any shares in a company stand forfeited to the Central Government under this section, then, the company shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) or the articles of association of the company, forthwith register the Central Government as the transferee of such shares.

105I. Fine in lieu of forfeiture

(1)
Where the Court makes a declaration that any property stands forfeited to the Central Government under section 105H and it is a case where the source of only a part of such property has not been proved to the satisfaction of the Court, it shall make an order giving an option to the person affected to pay, in lieu of forfeiture, a fine equal to the market value of such part.
(2)
Before making an order imposing a fine under sub-section (1), the person affected shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
(3)
Where the person affected pays the fine due under sub-section (1), within such time as may be allowed in that behalf, the Court may, by order, revoke the declaration of forfeiture under section 105H and thereupon such property shall stand released.

105J. Certain transfers to be null and void

Where after the making of an order under sub-section (1) of section 105E or the issue of a notice under section 105G, any property referred to in the said order or notice is transferred by any mode whatsoever such transfers shall, for the purposes of the proceedings under this Chapter, be ignored and if such property is subsequently forfeited to the Central Government under section 160H, then the transfer of such property shall be deemed to be null and void.

105K. Procedure in respect of letter of request

Every letter of request, summons or warrant, received by the Central Government from, and every letter of request, summons or warrant, to be transmitted to a contracting State under this Chapter shall be transmitted to a contracting State or, as the case may be, sent to the concerned Court in India in such form and in such manner as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

105L. Application of this Chapter

The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the application of this Chapter in relation to a contracting State with which reciprocal arrangements have been made, shall be subject to such conditions, exceptions or qualifications as are specified in the said notification.

Devider

Chapter VIII   Security for Keeping the Peace and for Good Behaviour

106. Security for keeping the peace on conviction

(1) When a Court of Session or Court of a Magistrate of the first class convicts a person of any of the offences specified in sub-section (2) or of abetting any such offence and is of opinion that it is necessary to take security from such person for keeping the peace, the Court may, at the time of passing sentence on such person, order him to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for keeping the peace for such period, not exceeding three years, as it thinks fit.

(2) The offences referred to in sub-section (1) are—
(a)any offence punishable under Chapter VIII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), other than an offence, punishable under section 153A or section 153B or section 154 thereof;
(b)any offence which consists of, or includes, assault or using criminal force or committing mischief;
(c)any offence of criminal intimidation;
(d)any other offence which caused, or was intended or known to be likely to cause, a breach of the peace.

(3) If the conviction is set aside on appeal or otherwise, the bond so executed shall become void.

(4) An order under this section may also be made by an Appellate Court or by a Court when exercising its powers of revision.

107. Security for keeping the peace in other cases

(1) When an Executive Magistrate receives information that any person is likely to commit a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity or to do any wrongful act that may probably occasion a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity and is of opinion that there is sufficient ground for proceeding, he may in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond with or without sureties for keeping the peace for such period, not exceeding one year, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

(2) Proceeding under this section may be taken before any Executive Magistrate when either the place where the breach of the peace or disturbance is apprehended is within his local jurisdiction or there is within such jurisdiction a person who is likely to commit a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity or to do any wrongful act as aforesaid beyond such jurisdiction.

108. Security for good behaviour from persons disseminating seditious matters

(1) When an Executive Magistrate receives information that there is within his local jurisdiction any person who, within or without such jurisdiction. –
(i)either orally or in writing or in any other manner, intentionally disseminates or attempts to disseminate or abets the dissemination of. –
(a)any matter the publication of which is punishable under section 124 A or section 153 A or section 153B or section 295 A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or
(b)any matter concerning a Judge acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duties which amounts to criminal intimidation or defamation under the Indian Penal Code.
(ii)makes, produces, publishes or keeps for sale, imports, exports, conveys, sells, lets to hi re, distributes, publicly exhibits or in any other manner puts in circulation any obscene matter such as is referred to in section 292 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860),
and the Magistrate is of opinion that there is sufficient ground for proceeding, the Magistrate may, in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his good behaviour for such period, not exceeding one year, as the Magistrate thinks fit.
(2) No proceeding shall be taken under this section against the editor, proprietor, printer or publisher of any publication registered under, and edited, printed and published in conformity with, the rules laid down in the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 (25 of 1867), with reference to any matter contained in such publication except by the order or under the authority of the State Government or some officer empowered by the State Government in this behalf.

109. Security for good behaviour from suspected persons

When an Executive Magistrate receive information that there is within his local jurisdiction a person taking precautions to conceal his presence and that there is reason to believe that he is doing so with a view to committing a cognizable offence, the Magistrate may, in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his good behaviour for such period, not exceeding one year, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

110. Security for good behaviour from habitual offenders

When an Executive Magistrate receives information that there is within his local jurisdiction a person who–

(a)is by habit a robber, house-breaker, thief, or forger, or
(b)is by habit a receiver of stolen property knowing the same to have been stolen, or
(c)habitually protects or harbours thieves, or aids in the concealment or disposal of stolen property, or
(d)habitually commits, or attempts to commit, or abets the commission of, the offence of kidnapping, abduction, extortion, cheating or mischief, or any offence punishable under Chapter XII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or under section 489A, section 489B, section 489C or section 489D of that Code, or
(e)habitually commits, or attempts to commit, or abets the commission of, offences, involving a breach of the peace, or

(f) habitually commits, or attempts to commit, or abets the commission of–
(i)any offence under one or more of the following Acts, namely:–
(a)the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (23 of 1940);
(b)the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973);
(c)the Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952);
(d)the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954);
(e)the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 (10 of 1955);
(f)the Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955 (22 of 1955);
(g)the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962);
(h) the Foreigners Act, 1946 (31 of 1946), or
(ii)any offence punishable under any other law providing for the prevention of hoarding or profiteering or of adulteration of food or drugs or of corruption, or
(g)is so desperate and dangerous as to render his being at large without security hazardous to the community,
such Magistrate may, in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond, with sureties, for his good behaviour for such period, not exceeding three years, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

111. Order to be made

When a Magistrate acting under section 107, section 108, section 109 or section 110, deems it necessary to require any person to show cause under such section he shall make an order in writing, setting forth the substance of the information received, the amount of the bond to be executed, the term for which it is to be in force, and the number, character and class of sureties (if any) required.

112. Procedure in respect of person present in Court

If the person in respect of whom such order is made is present in Court, it shall be read over to him, or, if he so desires, the substance thereof shall be explained to him.

113. Summons or warrant in case of person not so present

If such person is not present in Court, the Magistrate shall issue a summons requiring him to appear, or, when such person is in custody, a warrant directing the officer in whose custody he is to bring him before the Court:

Provided that whenever it appears to such Magistrate, upon the report of a police officer or upon other information (the substance of which report or information shall be recorded by the Magistrate), that there is reason to fear the Commission of a breach of the peace, and that such breach of the peace cannot be prevented otherwise than by the immediate arrest of such person, the Magistrate may at any time issue a warrant for his arrest.

114. Copy of order to accompany summons or warrant

Every summons or warrant issued under section 113 shall be accompanied by a copy of the order made under section 111, and such copy shall be delivered by the officer serving or executing such summons or warrant to the person served with, or arrested under, the same.

115. Power to dispense with personal attendance

The Magistrate may, if he sees sufficient cause, dispense with the personal attendance of any person called upon to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond for keeping the peace or for good behaviour and may permit him to appear by a pleader.

116. Inquiry as to truth of information

(1) When an order under section 111 has been read or explained under section 112 to a person in Court, or when any person appears or is brought before a Magistrate in compliance with, or in execution of, a summons or warrant, issued under section 113, the Magistrate shall proceed to inquire into the truth of the information upon which action has been taken, and to take such further evidence as may appear necessary.

(2) Such inquiry shall be made, as nearly as may be practicable, in the manner hereinafter prescribed for conducting trial and recording evidence in summons-cases.

(3) After the commencement, and before the completion, of the inquiry under sub-section (1), the Magistrate, if he considers that immediate measures are necessary for the prevention of a breach of the peace or disturbance of the public tranquility or the Commission of any offence or for the public safety, may, for reason to be recorded in writing, direct the person in respect of whom the order under section 111 has been made to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for keeping the peace or maintaining good behaviour until the conclusion of the inquiry and may detain him in custody until such bond is executed or, in default of execution, until the inquiry is concluded:
Provided that—

(a)no person against whom proceedings are not being taken over under section 108, section 109, or section 110 shall be directed to execute a bond for maintaining good behaviour;

(b)the conditions of such bond, whether as to the amount thereof or as to the provision of sureties or the number thereof or the pecuniary extent of their liability, shall not be more onerous than those specified in the order under section 111.

(4) For the purposes of this section the fact that a person is an habitual offender or is so desperate and dangerous as to render his being at large without security hazardous to the community may be proved by evidence of general repute or otherwise.
(5) Where two or more persons have been associated together in the matter under inquiry, they may be dealt within the same or separate inquiries as the Magistrate shall think just.
(6) The inquiry under this section shall be completed within a period of six months from the date of its commencement, and if such inquiry is not so completed, the proceedings under this Chapter shall, on the expiry of the said period, stand terminated unless, for special reasons to be recorded in writing, the Magistrate otherwise directs :
Provided that where any person has been kept in detention pending such inquiry, the proceeding against that person, unless terminated earlier, shall stand terminated on the expiry of a period of six months of such detention.

(7) Where any direction is made under sub-section (6) permitting the continuance of proceedings, the Sessions Judge may, on an application made to him by the aggrieved party, vacate such direction if he is satisfied that it was not based on any special reason or was perverse.

117. Order to give security

If, upon such inquiry, it is proved that it is necessary for keeping the peace or maintaining good behaviour, as the case may be, that the person in respect of whom the inquiry is made should execute a bond, with or without sureties, the Magistrate shall make an order accordingly:
Provided that—
(a)no person shall be ordered to give security of a nature different from, or of an amount larger than, or for a period longer than, that specified in the order made under section 111;
(b)the amount of every bond shall be fixed with due regard to the circumstances of the case and shall not be excessive;
(c)when the person in respect of whom the inquiry is made is a minor, the bond shall be executed only by his sureties.

118. Discharge of person informed against

If, on an inquiry under section 116, it is not proved that it is necessary for keeping the peace or maintaining good behaviour, as the case may be, that the person in respect of whom the inquiry is made, should execute a bond, the Magistrate shall make an entry on the record to that effect, and if such person is in custody only for the purposes of the inquiry, shall release him, or, if such person is not in custody, shall discharge him.

119. Commencement of period for which security is required

(1) If any person, in respect of whom an order requiring security is made under section 106 or section 117, is, at the time such order is made, sentenced to, or undergoing a sentence of, imprisonment, the period for which such security is required shall commence on the expiration of such sentence.
(2) In other cases such period shall commence on the date of such order unless the Magistrate, for sufficient reason, fixes a later date.

120. Contents of bond

The bond to be executed by any such person shall bind him to keep the peace or to be of good behaviour, as the case may be, and in the latter case the commission or attempt to commit, or the abetment of, any offence punishable with imprisonment, wherever it may be committed, is a breach of the bond.

121. Power to reject sureties

(1) A Magistrate may refuse to accept any surety offered, or may reject any surety previously accepted by him or his predecessor under this Chapter on the ground that such surety is an unfit person for the purposes of the bond;
Provided that, before so refusing to accept or rejecting any such surely, he shall either himself hold an enquiry on oath into the fitness of the surety, or cause such inquiry to be held and a report to be made thereon by a Magistrate subordinate to him.
(2)
Such Magistrate shall, before holding the inquiry, give reasonable notice to the surety and to the person by whom the surety was offered and shall, in making the inquiry, record the substance of the evidence adduced before him.
(3)
If the Magistrate is satisfied, after considering the evidence so adduced either before him or before, a Magistrate deputed under sub-section (1), and the report of such Magistrate (if any), that the surety is an unfit person for the purposes of the bond, he shall make an order refusing to accept or rejecting, as the case may be, such surety and recording his reasons for so doing:
Provided that, before making an order rejecting any surety who has previously been accepted, the Magistrate shall issue his summons or warrant, as he thinks fit, and cause the person for whom the surety is bound to appear or to be brought before him.

122. Imprisonment in default of security

(1) (a)If any person ordered to give security under section 106 or section 117 does not give such security on or before the date on which the period for which such security is to be given commences, be shall, except in the case next hereinafter mentioned, be committed to prison, or, if, he is already in prison, be detained in prison until such period expires or until within such period he gives the security to the Court or Magistrate who made the order requiring it.
(b)If any person after having executed a bond with or without sureties for keeping the peace in pursuance of an order of a Magistrate under section 117 , is proved, to the satisfaction of such Magistrate or his successor-in-office, to have committed breach of the bond, such Magistrate or successor-in-office may, after recording the grounds of such proof, order that the person be arrested and detained in prison until the expiry of the period of the bond and such order shall be without prejudice to any other punishment or forfeiture to which the said person may be liable in accordance with law.
(2)
When such person has been ordered by a Magistrate to give security for a period exceeding one year, such Magistrate shall, if such person does not give such security as aforesaid, issue a warrant directing hi m to be detained in prison pending the orders of the Sessions Judge and the proceedings shall be laid, as soon as conveniently may be, before such Court.
(3)
Such Court, after examining such proceedings and requiring from the Magistrate any further information or evidence which it thinks necessary, and after giving the concerned person a reasonable opportunity of being heard, may pass such order on the case as it thinks fit:
Provided that the period (if any) for which any person is imprisoned for failure to give security shall not exceed three years.
(4)
If security has been required in the course of the same proceeding from two or more persons in respect of any one of whom the proceedings are referred to the Sessions Judge under sub-section (2), such reference shall also include the case of any other of such persons who has been ordered to give security, and the provisions of sub-sections ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) shall, in that event, apply to the case of such other person also except that the period (if any) for which he may be imprisoned, shall not exceed the period for which he was ordered to give security.
(5)
A Sessions Judge may in hi s discretion transfer any proceeding laid before hi m under sub-section ( 2 ) or sub-section ( 4 ) to an Additional Sessions Judge or Assistant Sessions Judge and upon such transfer, such Additional Sessions Judge or Assistant Sessions Judge may exercise the powers of a Sessions Judge under this section in respect of such proceedings.
(6)
If the security is tendered to the officer in charge of the jail, he shall forthwith refer the matter to the Court or Magistrate who made the order, and shall await the orders of such Court or Magistrate.
(7)
Imprisonment for failure to give security for keeping the peace shall be simple.
(8)
Imprisonment for failure to give security for good behaviour shall, where the proceedings have been taken under section 108, be simple and, where the proceedings have been taken under section 109 or section 110, be rigorous or simple as the Court or Magistrate in each case directs.

123. Power to release persons imprisoned for failing to give security

(1)
Whenever the District Magistrate in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case is of opinion that any person imprisoned for failing to give security under this Chapter may be released without hazard to the community or to any other person, he may order such person to be discharged.
(2)
Whenever any person has been imprisoned for failing to give security under this Chapter, the High Court or Court of Session, or, where the order was made by any other Court, the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case, may make an order reducing the amount of the security or the number of sureties or the time for which security has been required.
(3)
An order under sub-section (1) may direct the discharge of such person either without conditions or upon any conditions which such person accepts:
Provided that any condition imposed shall cease to be operative when the period for which such person was ordered to give security has expired.
(4)
The State Government may prescribe the conditions upon which a conditional discharge may be made.
(5)
If any condition upon which any person has been discharged is, in the opinion of the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117 , or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case by whom the order of discharge was made or of hi s successor, not fulfilled, he may cancel the same.
(6)
When a conditional order of discharge has been cancelled under sub-section ( 5 ), such person may be arrested by any police officer without warrant, and shall thereupon be produced before the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117 , or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case.
(7)
Unless such person gives security in accordance with the terms of the original order for the unexpired portion of the term for which he was in the first instance committed or ordered to be detained (such portion being deemed to be a period equal to the period between the date of the breach of the conditions of discharge and the date on which, except for such conditional discharge, he would have been entitled to release), the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117 , or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case may remand such person to prison to undergo such unexpired portion.
(8)
A person remanded to prison under sub-section (7) shall, subject to the provisions of section 122 , be released at any lime on giving security in accordance with the terms of the original order for the unexpired portion aforesaid to the Court or Magistrate by whom such order was made, or to its or his successor.
(9)
The High Court or Court of Sessions may at any time, for sufficient reasons to be recorded in writing, cancel any bond for keeping the peace or for good behaviour executed under this Chapter by any order made by it, and the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case may make such cancellation where such bond was executed under his order or under the order of any other Court in his district.
(10)
Any surety for the peaceable conduct or good behaviour of another person, ordered to execute a bond under this Chapter may at any time apply to the Court making such order to cancel the bond and on such application being made, the Court shall issue a summons or warrant, as it thinks fit, requiring the person for whom such surety is bound to appear or to be brought before it.

124. Security for unexpired period of bond

(1) When a person for whose appearance a summons or warrant has been issued under the proviso to sub-section (3) of section 121 or under sub-section (10) of section 123, appears or is brought before the Magistrate or Court, the Magistrate or Court shall cancel the bond executed by such person and shall order such person to give, for the unexpired portion of the term of such bond, fresh security of the same person description as the original security.
(2)
Every such order shall, for the purposes of sections 120 to 123 (both inclusive). Be deemed to be an order made under section 106 or section 117, as the case may be.

Devider

Chapter IX Order for Maintenance of Wives, Children and Parents [SEC 125 TO 128 Click Here ]

Devider

Chapter X

Maintenance of Public Order and Tranquillity

A. — Unlawful assemblies

129. Dispersal of assembly by use of civil force

(1) Any Executive Magistrate or office in charge of a police station or, in the absence of such officer in charge, any police officer, not below the rank of a sub-inspector, may command any unlawful assembly, or any assembly of five or more persons likely to cause a disturbance of the public peace, to disperse; and it shall thereupon be the duty of the members of such assembly to disperse accordingly.

(2) If, upon being so commanded, any such assembly does not disperse, or if, without being so commanded, it conducts itself in such a manner as to show a determination, not to disperse, any Executive Magistrate or police officer referred to in sub-section (1), may proceed to disperse such assembly by force, and may require the assistance of any make person, not being an officer or member of the armed forces and acting as such, for the purpose of dispersing such assembly, and, if necessary, arresting and confining the persons who form part of it, in order to disperse such assembly or that they may be punished according to law.

130. Use of armed forces to disperse assembly

(1) If any such assembly cannot be otherwise dispersed, and if it is necessary for the public security that it should be dispersed, the Executive Magistrate of the highest rank who is present may cause it to be dispersed by the armed forces.
(2) Such Magistrate may require any officer in command of any group of persons belonging to the armed forces to disperse the assembly with the help of the armed forces under his command, and to arrest and confine such persons forming part of it as the Magistrate may direct, or as it may be necessary to arrest and confine in order to disperse the assembly or to have them punished according to law.
(3) Every such officer of the armed forces shall obey such requisition in such manner as he thinks fit, but in so doing he shall use as little force, and do as little injury to person and property, as may be consistent with dispersing the assembly and arresting and detaining such persons.

131. Power of certain armed force officers to disperse assembly

When the public security is manifestly endangered by any such assembly and no Executive Magistrate can be communicated with, any commissioned or gazette officer of the armed forces may disperse such assembly with the help of the armed forces under his command, and may arrest and confine any persons forming part of it, in order to disperse such assembly or that they may be punished according to law, but if, while he is acting under this section, it becomes practicable for him to communicate with an Executive Magistrate, he shall do so, and shall thenceforward obey the instructions of the Magistrate, as to whether he shall or shall not continue such action.

132. Protection against prosecution for acts done under preceding sections

(1) No prosecution against any person for any act purporting to be done under section 129, section 130 or section 131 shall be instituted in any Criminal Court except.—
(a)with the sanction of the Central Government where such person is an officer or member of the armed forces;
(b)with the sanction of the State Government in any other case.

(2) (a)No Executive Magistrate or police officer acting under any of the said sections in good faith;
(b)no person doing any act in good faith in compliance with a requisition under section 129 or section 130;
(c)no officer of the armed forces acting under section 131 in good faith;
(d)no member of the armed forces doing any act in obedience (o any order which he was bound to obey, shall be deemed to have thereby, committed an offence.
(3) In this section and in the preceding sections of this Chapter,—
(a)the expression “armed forces” means the military, naval and air forces, operating as land forces and includes any other Armed Forces of the Union so operating;
(b)”officer” in relation to the armed forces, means a person commissioned, gazetted or in pay as an officer of the armed forces and includes a junior commissioned officer, a warrant officer, a petty officer, a non-commissioned officer and a non-gazetted officer;
(c)”member” in relation to the armed forces, means a person in the armed forces other than an officer.

B. —Public nuisances [Ss 133 to 143]

C. — Urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger

144. Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger

(1) In cases where, in the opinion of a District Magistrate, a Sub-divisional Magistrate or any other Executive Magistrate specially empowered by the State Government in this behalf, there is sufficient ground for proceeding under this section and immediate prevention or speedy remedy is desirable, such Magistrate may, by a written order stating the material facts of the case and served in the manner provided by section 134, direct any person to abstain from a certain act or to take certain order with respect to certain property in his possession or under his management, if such Magistrate considers that such direction is likely to prevent, or tends to prevent, obstruction, annoyance or injury to any person lawfully employed, or danger to human life, health or safely, or a disturbance of the public tranquility, or a riot, or an affray.
(2) An order under this section may, in cases of emergency or in cases where the circumstances do not admit of the serving in due time of a notice upon the person against whom the order is directed, be passed ex parte.
(3) An order under this section may be directed to a particular individual, or to persons residing in a particular place or area, or to the public generally when frequenting or visiting a particular place or area.
(4) No order under this section shall remain in force for more than two months from the making thereof:
Provided that, if the State Government considers it necessary so to do for preventing danger to human life, health or safety or for preventing a riot or any affray, it may, by notification, direct that an order made by a Magistrate under this section shall remain in force for such further period not exceeding six months from the date on which the order made by the Magistrate would have, but for such order, expired, as it may specify in the said notification.
(5) Any Magistrate may, either on his own motion or on the application of any person aggrieved, rescind or alter any order made under this section, by himself or any Magistrate subordinate to him or by his predecessor-in-office.
(6) The State Government may, either on its own motion or on the application of any person aggrieved, rescind or alter any order made by it under the proviso to sub­section (4).
(7) Where an application under sub-section (5), or sub-section (6) is received, the Magistrate, or the State Government, as the case may be, shall afford to the applicant an early opportunity of appearing before him or it, either in person or by pleader and showing cause against the order, and if the Magistrate or the State Government, as the case may be, rejects the application wholly or in part, he or it shall record in writing the reasons for so doing.

144A. Power to prohibit carrying arms in procession or mass drill or mass training with arms

[(1) The District Magistrate may, whenever he considers it necessary so to do for the preservation of public peace or public safety or for the maintenance of public order, by public notice or by order, prohibit in any area within the local limits of his jurisdiction, the carrying of arms in any procession or the organising or holding of, or taking part in, any mass drill or mass training with arms in any public place.
(2)
A public notice issued or an order made under this section may be directed to a particular person or to persons belonging to any community, party or organisation.
(3)
No public notice issued or an order made under this section shall remain in force for more than three months from the date on which it is issued or made.
(4)
The State Government may, if it considers necessary so to do for the preservation of public peace or public safety or for the maintenance of public order, by notification, direct that a public notice issued or order made by the District Magistrate under this section shall remain in force for such further period not exceeding six months from the date on which such public notice or order was issued or made by the District Magistrate would have, but for such direction, expired, as it may specify in the said notification.
(5)
The State Government may, subject to such control and directions as it may deem fit to impose, by general or special order, delegate its powers under sub-section (4) to the District Magistrate.
Explanation.- The word “arms” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 153AA of the Indian Penal Code(45 of 1860).]*
*Inserted by Act 25 of 2005 (Section 16) (effective date yet to be notified).

D. — Disputes as to immovable property

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Chapter XI

Preventive Action of the Police

149. Police to prevent cognizable offences

Every police officer may interpose for the purpose of preventing, and shall, to the best of his ability, prevent, the commission of any cognizable offence.

150. Information of design to commit cognizable offences

Every police officer receiving information of a design to commit any cognizable offence shall communicate such information to the police officer to whom he is subordinate, and to any other officer whose duty it is to prevent or take cognizance of the commission of any such offence.

151. Arrest to prevent the commission of cognizable offences

( 1 ) A police officer knowing of a design to commit any cognizable offence may arrest, without orders from a Magistrate and without a warrant, the person so designing, if it appears to such officer that the commission of the offence cannot be otherwise prevented.
( 2 ) No person arrested under sub-section ( 1 ) shall be detained in custody for a period exceeding twenty-four hours from the time of hi s arrest unless hi s further detention is required or authorised under any other provisions of this Code or of any other law for the time being in force.

152. Prevention of injury to public property

A police officer may of his own authority interpose to prevent any injury attempted to be committed in his view to any public property, movable or immovable, or the removal or injury of any public landmark or buoy or other mark used for navigation.

153. Inspection of weights and measures

(1) Any officer in charge of a police station may, without a warrant, enter any place within the limits of such station for the purpose of inspecting or searching for any weights or measures or instruments for weighing, used or kept therein, whenever he has reason to believe that there are in such place any weights, measures or instruments for weighing which are false.
(2) If he finds in such place any weights, measures or instruments for weighing which are false, he may seize the same, and shall forthwith give information of such seizure to a Magistrate having jurisdiction.

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ARROW 2Chapter XII  Information to the Police and their Powers to Investigate [Click] [Section 154 to 176]

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Chapter XIII

Jurisdiction of the Criminal Courts in Inquiries and Trials

177. Ordinary place of inquiry and trial

Every offence shall ordinarily be inquired and tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction it was committed.

178. Place of inquiry or trial

(a)When it is uncertain in which of several local areas an offence was committed, or
(b)where an offence is committed partly in one local area and partly in another, or
(c)where an offence is a continuing one, and continues to be committed in more local areas than one, or
(d)where it consists of several acts done in different local areas,
it may be inquired into or tried by a Court having jurisdiction over any of such local areas.

179. Offence triable where act is done or consequence ensues

When an act is an offence by reason of anything which has been done and of a consequence which has ensued, the offence may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction such thing has been done or such consequence has ensued.

180. Place of trial where act is offence by reason of relation to other offence

When an act is an offence by reason of its relation to any other act which is also an offence or which would be an offence if the doer were capable of committing an offence, the first-mentioned offence may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction either act was done.

181. Place of trial in case of certain offences

(1) Any offence of being a thug, or murder committed by a thug, of dacoity, of dacoity with murder, of belonging to a gang of dacoits, or of escaping from custody, may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the accused person is found.
(2) Any offence of kidnapping or abduction of a person may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the person was kidnapped or abducted or was conveyed or concealed or detained.
(3) Any offence of theft, extortion or robbery may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the stolen property which is the subject of the offence was possessed by any person committing it or by any person who received or retained such property knowing or having reason to believe it to be stolen property.
(4) Any offence of criminal misappropriation or of criminal breach of trust may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or any part of the property which is the subject of the offence was received or retained, or was required to be returned or accounted for, by the accused person.
(5) Any offence which includes the possession of stolen property may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the stolen property was possessed by any person who received or retained it knowing or having reason to believe it to be stolen property.

182. Offences committed by letters, etc

(1) Any offence which includes cheating may, if the deception is practiced by means of letters or telecommunication messages, be inquired into or tried by any Court within whose local jurisdiction such letters or messages were sent or were received; and any offence of cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the property was delivered by the person deceived or was received by the accused person.
(2) Any offence punishable under section 495 or section 494 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the offender last resided with hi s or her spouse by the first marriage, or the wife by first marriage has taken up permanent residence after the commission of offence.

183. Offence committed on journey or voyage

When an offence is committed, whilst the person by or against whom, or the thing in respect of which, the offence is committed is in the course of performing a journey or voyage, the offence may be inquired into or tried by a Court through or into whose local jurisdiction that person or thing passed in the course of that journey or voyage.

184. Place of trial for offences triable together

Where—
(a)the offences committed by any person are such that he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, each such offence by virtue of the provisions of section 219, section 220 or section 221, or
(b)the offence or offences committed by several persons are such that they may be charged with, and tried together by virtue of the provisions of section 223,
the offences may be inquired into or tried by any Court competent to inquire into or try any of the offences.

185. Power to order cases to be tried in different sessions divisions

Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, the State Government may direct that any cases or class of cases committed for trial in any district may be tried in any sessions division:
Provided that such direction is not repugnant to any direction previously issued by the High Court or the Supreme Court under the Constitution, or under this Code or any other law for the time being in force.
186. High Court to decide, in case of doubt, district where inquiry or trial shall take place

Where two or more Courts have taken cognizance of the same offence and a question arises as to which of them ought to inquire into or try that offence, the question shall be decided—
(a)if the Courts are subordinate to the same High Court, by that High Court;
(b)if the Courts are not subordinate to the same High Court, by the High Court within the local limits of whose appellate criminal jurisdiction the proceedings were first commenced,
and thereupon all other proceedings in respect of that offence shall be discontinued.

187. Power to issue summons or warrant for offence committed beyond local jurisdiction

(1) When a Magistrate of the first class sees reason to believe that any person within his local jurisdiction has committed outside such jurisdiction (whether within or outside India) an offence which cannot, under the provisions of sections 177 to 185 (both inclusive), or any other law for the time being in force, be inquired into or tried within such jurisdiction but is under some law for the time being in force triable in India, such Magistrate may inquire into the offence as if it had been committed within such local jurisdiction and compel such person in the manner hereinbefore provided to appear before him, and send such person to the Magistrate having jurisdiction to inquire into or try such offence, or, if such offence is not punishable with death or imprisonment for life and such person is ready and willing to give bail to the satisfaction of the Magistrate acting under this section, take a bond with or without sureties for his appearance before the Magistrate having such jurisdiction.
(2)
When there are more Magistrates than one having such jurisdiction and the Magistrate acting under this section cannot satisfy himself as to the Magistrate to or before whom such person should be sent or bound to appear, the case shall be reported for the orders of the High Court.

188. Offence committed outside India

When an offence is committed outside India—
(a)by a citizen of India, whether on the high seas or elsewhere; or
(b)by a person, not being such citizen, on any ship or aircraft registered in India,
he may be dealt with in respect of such offence as if it had been committed at any place within India at which he may be found:

Provided that, notwithstanding anything in any of the preceding sections of this Chapter, no such offence shall be inquired into or tried in India except with the previous sanction of the Central Government.

189. Receipt of evidence relating to offences committed outside India

When any offence alleged to have been committed in a territory outside India is being inquired into or tried under the provisions of section 188, the Central Government may, if it thinks fit, direct that copies of depositions made or exhibits produced before a judicial officer in or for that territory or before a diplomatic or consular representative of India in or for that territory shall be received as evidence by the Court holding such inquiry or trial in any case in which such Court might issue a commission for taking evidence as to the matters to which such depositions or exhibits relate.

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Chapter XIV  –  Conditions Requisite for Initiation of Proceedings [taking Cognizance ][Sec 190 to 199]

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Chapter XV

Complaints to Magistrates

200. Examination of complainant

A Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence on complaint shall examine upon oath the complainant and the witnesses present, if any, and the substance of such examination shall be reduced to writing and shall be signed by the complainant and the witnesses, and also by the Magistrate:
Provided that, when the complaint is made in writing, the Magistrate need not examine the complainant and the witnesses—
(a)if a public servant acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duties or a Court has made the complaint; or
(b)if the Magistrate makes over the case for inquiry or trial to another Magistrate under section 192:
Provided further that if the Magistrate makes over the case to another Magistrate under section 192 after examining the complainant and the witnesses, the latter Magistrate need not re-examine them.

201. Procedure by Magistrate not competent to take cognizance of the case

If the complaint is made to a Magistrate who is not competent to take cognizance of the offence he shall,—
(a)if the complaint is in writing, return it for presentation to the proper Court with an endorsement to that effect;
(b)if the complaint is not in writing, direct the complainant to the proper Court.

202. Postponement of issue of process

(1) Any Magistrate, on receipt of a complaint of an offence of which he is authorised to take cognizance or which has been made over to hi m under section 192 , may, if he thinks fit and shall in a case where the accused is residing at a place beyond the area in which he exercises his jurisdiction, postpone the issue of process against the accused, and either inquire into the case himself or direct an investigation to be made by a police officer or by such other person as he thinks fit, for the purpose of deciding whether or not there is sufficient ground for proceeding:

Provided that no such direction for investigation shall be made-

(a)where it appears to the Magistrate that the offence complained of is triable exclusively by the Court of Sessions; or
(b)where the complaint has not been made by a Court, unless the complainant and the witnesses present (if any) have been examined on oath under section 200 .
(2) In an inquiry under sub-section (1), the Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, take evidence of witness on oath:
Provided that if it appears to the Magistrate that the offence complained of is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, he shall call upon the complainant to produce all his witnesses and examine them on oath.
(3) If an investigation under sub-section (1) is made by a person not being a police officer, he shall have for that investigation all the powers conferred by this Code on an officer in charge of a police station except the power to arrest without warrant.

203. Dismissal of complaint

If, after considering the statements on oath (if any) of the complainant and of the witnesses and the result of the inquiry or investigation (if any) under section 202, the Magistrate is of opinion that there is no sufficient ground for proceeding, he shall dismiss the complaint, and in every such case he shall briefly record his reasons for so doing.

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Chapter XVI

Commencement of Proceedings Before Magistrates

204. Issue of process

(1) If in the opinion of a Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence there is sufficient ground for proceeding, and the case appears to be—
(a)a summons-case, he shall issue his summons for the attendance of the accused, or
(b)a warrant-case, he may issue a warrant, or, if he thinks fit, a summons, for causing the accused to be brought or to appear at a certain time before such Magistrate or (if he has no jurisdiction himself) some other Magistrate having jurisdiction.
(2) No summons or warrant shall be issued against the accused under sub-section (1) until a list of the prosecution witnesses has been filed.
(3) In a proceeding instituted upon a complaint made in writing, every summons or warrant issued under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by a copy of such complaint.
(4) When by any law for the time being in force any process-fees or other fees are payable, no process shall be issued until the fees are paid and, if such fees are not paid within a reasonable time, the Magistrate may dismiss the complaint.
(5) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect the provisions of section 87.

205. Magistrate may dispense with personal attendance of accused

(1) Whenever a Magistrate issues a summons, he may, if he sees reason so to do, dispense with the personal attendance of the accused and permit him to appear by his pleader.
(2) But the Magistrate inquiring into or trying the case may, in his discretion, at any stage of the proceedings, direct the personal attendance of the accused, and, if necessary, enforce such attendance in the manner hereinbefore provided.

206. Special summons in cases of petty offence

(1) If, in the opinion of a Magistrate taking cognizance of a petty offence, the case may be summarily disposed of under section 260 or section 261, the Magistrate shall, except where he is, for reasons to be recorded in writing of a contrary opinion, issue summons to the accused requiring him either to appear in person or by pleader before the Magistrate on a specified date, or if he desires to plead guilty to the charge without appearing before the Magistrate, to transmit before the specified date, by post or by messenger to the Magistrate, the said plea in writing and the amount of fine specified in the summons or if he desires to appear by pleader and to plead guilty to the charge through such pleader, to authorise, in writing, the pleader to plead guilty to the charge on his behalf and to pay the fine through such pleader:

Provided that the amount of the fine specified in such summons shall not exceed one thousand rupees.

(2) For the purposes of this section, “petty offence” means any offence punishable only with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, but does not include any offence so punishable under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939, or under any other law which provides for convicting the accused person in his absence on a plea of guilty.

(3) The State Government may, by notification, specially empower any Magistrate to exercise the powers conferred by sub-section (1 ) in relation to any offence which is compoundable under section 320 or any offence punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months, or with fine or with both where the Magistrate is of opinion that, having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case, the imposition of fine only would me et the ends of justice.

207. Supply to the accused of copy of police report and other documents

In any case where the proceeding has been instituted on a police report, the Magistrate shall without delay furnish to the accused, free of cost, a copy of each of the following:—

(i)the police report;
(ii)the first information report recorded under section 154;
(iii)the statements recorded under sub-section (3) of section 161 of all persons whom the prosecution proposes to examine as its witnesses, excluding therefrom any part in regard to which a request for such exclusion has been made by the police officer under sub-section (6) of section 173;
(iv)the confessions and statements, if any, recorded under section 164;
(v)any other document or relevant extract thereof forwarded to the Magistrate with the police report under sub-section (5) of section 173:

Provided that the Magistrate may, after perusing any such pan of a statement as is referred to in clause (iii) and considering the reasons given by the police officer for the request, direct that a copy of that part of the statement or of such portion thereof as the Magistrate thinks proper, shall be furnished to the accused:

Provided further that if the Magistrate is satisfied that any document referred to in clause (v) is voluminous, he shall, instead of furnishing the accused with a copy thereof, direct that he will only be allowed to inspect it either personally or through pleader in Court.

208. Supply of copies of statements and documents to accused in other cases triable by Court of Session

Where, in a case instituted otherwise than on a police report, it appears to the Magistrate issuing process under section 204 that the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, the Magistrate shall without delay furnish to the accused, free of cost, a copy of each of the following:—

(i)the statements recorded under section 200 or section 202, or all persons examined by the Magistrate;
(ii)the statements and confessions, if any, recorded under section 161 or section 164;
(iii)any documents produced before the Magistrate on which the prosecution proposes to rely:

Provided that if the Magistrate is satisfied that any such document is voluminous, he shall, instead of furnishing the accused with a copy thereof, direct that he will only be allowed to inspect it either personally or through pleader in Court.

209. Commitment of case to Court of Session when offence is triable exclusively by it

When in a case instituted on a police report or otherwise, the accused appears or is brought before the Magistrate and it appears to the Magistrate that the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, he shall-

(a)commit, after complying with the provisions of section 207 or section 208, as the case may be, the case to the Court of Session, and subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody until such commitment has been made;
(b)subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody during, and until the conclusion of, the trial;
(c)send to that Court the record of the case and the documents and articles, if any, which are to be produced in evidence;
(d)notify the Public Prosecutor of the commitment of the case to the Court of Session.

210. Procedure to be followed when there is a complaint case and police investigation in respect of the same offence

(1) When in a case instituted otherwise than on a police report (hereinafter referred to as a complaint case), it is made to appear to the Magistrate, during the course of the inquiry or trial held by him, that an investigation by the police is in progress in relation to the offence which is the subject-matter of the inquiry or trial held by him, the Magistrate shall stay the proceedings of such inquiry or trial and call for a report on the matter from the police officer conducting the investigation.

(2) If a report is made by the investigating police officer under section 173 and on such report cognizance of any offence is taken by the Magistrate against any person who is an accused in the complaint case, the Magistrate shall inquire into or try together the complaint case and the case arising out of the police report as if both the cases were instituted on a police report.

(3) If the police report does not relate to any accused in the complaint case or if the Magistrate does not take cognizance of any offence on the police report, he shall proceed with the inquiry or trial, which was stayed by him, in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

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Chapter XVII

The Charge

A. —Form of charges

211. Contents of charge

(1) Every charge under this Code shall state the offence with which the accused is charged.
(2) If the law which creates the offence gives it any specific name, the offence may be described in the charge by that name only.
(3) If the law which creates the offence does not give it any specific name so much of the definition of the offence must be stated as to give the accused notice of the matter with which he is charged.
(4) The law and section of the law against which the offence is said to have been committed shall be mentioned in the charge.
(5) The fact that the charge is made is equivalent to a statement that every legal condition required by law to constitute the offence charged was fulfilled in the particular case.
(6) The charge shall be written in the language of the Court.
(7) If the accused, having been previously convicted of any offence, is liable, by reason of such previous conviction, to enhanced punishment, or to punishment of a different kind, for a subsequent offence, and it is intended to prove such previous conviction for the purpose of affecting the punishment which the Court may think fit to award for the subsequent offence, the fact date and place of the previous, conviction shall be stated in the charge; and if such statement has been omitted, the Court may add it at any time before sentence is passed.

Illustrations
(a)A is charged with the murder of B. This is equivalent to a statement that A’s act fell within the definition of murder given in sections 299 and 300 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860); that it did not fall within any of the general exceptions of the said Code; and that it did not fall within any of the five exceptions to section 300, or that, if it did fall within Exception 1, one or other of the three provisos to that exception applied to it.
(b)A is charged under section 326 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) with voluntarily causing grievous hurt to B by means of an instrument for shooting. This is equivalent to a statement that the case was not provided for by section 335 of the said Code, and that the general exceptions did not apply to it.
(c)A is accused of murder, cheating, theft, extortion, adultery or criminal intimidation, or using a false property-mark. The charge may state that A committed murder, or cheating, or theft, or extortion, or adultery, or criminal intimidation, or that he used a false property-mark, without reference to the definition, of those crimes contained in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860); but the sections under which the offence is punishable must, in each instance, be referred to in the charge.
(d)A is charged under section 184 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) with intentionally obstructing a sale of property offered for sale by the lawful authority of a public servant. The charge should be in those words.

212. Particulars as to time, place and person

(1) The charge shall contain such particulars as to the time and place of the alleged offence, and the person (if any) against whom, or the thing (if any) in respect of which, it was committed, as are reasonably sufficient to give the accused notice of the matter with which he is charged.
(2) When the accused is charged with criminal breach of trust or dishonest misappropriation of money or other moveable property, it shall be sufficient to specify the gross sum or, as the case may be, described the movable property in respect of which the offence is alleged to have been committed, and the dates between which the offence is alleged to have been committed, without specifying particular items or exact dates, and the charge so framed shall be deemed to be a charge of one offence within the meaning of section 219:
Provided that the time included between the first and last of such dates shall not exceed one year.

213. When manner of committing offence must be stated

When the nature of the case is such that the particulars mentioned in sections 211 and 212 do not give the accused sufficient notice of the matter with which he is charged, the charge shall also contain such particulars of the manner is which the alleged offence was committed as will be sufficient for that purpose.

Illustrations
(a)A is accused of the theft of a certain article at a certain time and place. The charge need not set out the manner in which the theft was effected.
(b)A is accused of cheating B at a given time and place. The charge must be set out the manner in which A cheated B.
(c)A is accused of giving false evidence at a given time and place. The charge must set out that portion of the evidence given by A which is alleged to be false.
(d)A is accused of obstructing B, a public servant, in the discharge of his public functions at a given time and place. The charge must set out the manner in which A obstructed B in the discharge of his functions.
(e)A is accused of the murder of B at a given time and place. The charge need not state the manner in which A murdered B.
(f)A is accused of disobeying a direction of the law with intent to save B from punishment. The charge must set out the disobedience charge and the law infringed.

214. Words in charge taken in sense of law under which offence is punishable

In every charge words used in describing an offence shall be deemed to have been used in the sense attached to them respectively by the law under which such offence is punishable.

215. Effect of errors

No error in stating either the offence or the particulars required to be stated in the charge, and no omission to state the offence or those particulars, shall be regarded at any stage of the case as material, unless the accused was in fact misled by such error or omission, and it has occasioned a failure of justice.

Illustrations
(a)A is charged under section 242 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), with “having been in possession of counterfeit coin, having known at the time when he became possessed thereof that such coin was counterfeit,” the word ” fraudulently” being omitted in the charge. Unless it appears that A was in fact misled by this omission, the error shall not be regarded as material.
(b)A is charged with cheating B, and the manner in which he cheated B is not set out in the charge, or is set out incorrectly. A defends himself, calls witnesses and gives his own account of the transaction. The Court may infer from this that the omission to set out the manner of the cheating is not material.
(c)A is charged with cheating B, and the manner in which he cheated B is not set out in the-charge. There were many transactions between A and B, and A had no means of knowing to which of them the charge referred, and offered no defence. The Court may infer from such facts that the omission to set out the manner of the cheating was, in the case, a material error.
(d)A is charged with the murder of Khoda Baksh on the 21st January, 1882. In fact, the murdered person’s name was Haidar Baksh, and the dale of the murder was the 20th January, 1882. A was never charged with any murder but one, and had heard the inquiry before the Magistrate, which referred exclusively to the case of Haidar Baksh. The Court may infer from these facts that A was not misled, and that the error in the charge was immaterial.
(e)A was charged with murdering Haidar Baksh on the 20th January, 1882, and Khoda Baksh (who tried to arrest him for that murder) on the 21st January, 1882. When charged for the murder of Haidar Baksh, he was tried for the murder of Khoda Baksh. The witnesses present in his defence were witnesses in the case of Haidar Baksh. The Court may infer from this that A was misled, and that the error was material.

216. Court may alter charge

(1) Any Court may alter or add to any charge at any time before judgment is pronounced.
(2) Every such alteration or addition shall be read and explained to the accused.
(3) If the alteration or addition to a charge is such that proceeding immediately with the trial is not likely, in the opinion of the Court to prejudice the accused in his defence or the prosecutor in the conduct of the case the Court may, in its discretion, after such alteration or addition has been made, proceed with the trial as if the altered or added charge had been the original charge.
(4) If the alteration or addition is such that proceeding immediately with the trial is likely, in the opinion of the Court to prejudice the accused or the prosecutor as aforesaid, the Court may either direct a new trial or adjourn the trial for such period as may be necessary.
(5) If the offence stated in the altered or added charge is one for the prosecution of which previous sanction is necessary, the case shall not be proceeded with until such sanction is obtained, unless sanction had been already obtained for a prosecution on the same facts as those on which the altered or added charge is founded.

217. Recall of witnesses when charge altered

Whenever a charge is altered or added to by the Court after the commencement of the trial, the prosecutor and the accused shall be allowed—
(a)to recall or re-summon, and examine with reference to such alteration or addition, any witness who may have been examined, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers that the prosecutor or the accused, as the case may be, desires to recall or re-examine such witness for the purpose of vexation or delay or for defeating the ends of justice;
(b)also to call any further witness whom the Court may think to be material.

B. —Joinder of charges

218. Separate charges for distinct offences

(1) For every distinct offence of which any person is accused there shall be a separate charge and every such charge shall be tried separately:
Provided that where the accused person, by an application in writing, so desires and the Magistrate is of opinion that such person is not likely to be prejudiced thereby the Magistrate may try together all or any number of the charges framed against such person.
(2)
Nothing in sub-section (1) shall affect the operation of the provisions of sections 219, 220, 221 and 223.
Illustration
A is accused of a theft on one occasion, and of causing grievous hurt on another occasion. A must be separately charged and separately tried for the theft and causing grievous hurt.

219. Three offences of same kind within year may be charged together

(1) When a person is accused of more offences than one of the same kind committed within the space of twelve months from the first to the last of such offences, whether in respect of the same person or not, he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, any number of them not exceeding three.
(2) Offences are of the same kind when they are punishable with the same amount of punishment under the same section of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or of any special or local laws:
Provided that, for the purposes of this section, an offence punishable under section 379 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be deemed to be an offence of the same kind as an offence punishable under section 380 of the said Code, and that an offence punishable under any section of the said Code, or of any special or local law, shall be deemed to be an offence of the same kind as an attempt to commit such offence, when such an attempt is an offence.

220. Trial for more than one offence

(1) If, in one series of acts so connected together as to form the same transaction, more offences than one are committed by the same person, he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, every such offence.
(2) When a person charged with one or more offences of criminal breach of trust or dishonest misappropriation of properly as provided in sub-section (2) of section 212 or in sub-section (1) of section 219, is accused of committing, for the purpose of facilitating or concealing the commission of that offence or those offences, one or more offences of falsification of accounts, he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, every such offence.
(3) If the acts alleged constitute an offence falling within two or more separate definitions of any law in force for the time being by which offences are defined or punished, the person accused of them may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, each of such offences.
(4) If several acts, of which one or more than one would by itself or themselves constitute an offence, constitute when combined a different offence, the person accused of them may be charged with, and tried at one trial for the offence constituted by such acts when combined, and for any offence constituted by any one, or more, or such acts.
(5) Nothing contained in this section shall affect section 71 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

Illustrations to sub-section (1)
(a)A rescues B a person in lawful custody, and in so doing causes grievous hurt to C, a constable, in whose custody B was, A may be charged with, and convicted of, offences under sections 225 and 333 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(b)A commits house-breaking by day with intent to commit adultery, and commits in the house so entered, adultery with B’s wife. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under sections 454 and 497 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(c)A entices B, the wife of C, away from C, with intent to commit adultery with B, and then commits adultery with her. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under sections 498 and 497 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(d)A has in his possession several seals, knowing them to be counterfeit and intending to use them for the purpose of committing several forgeries punishable under section 466 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860). A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, the possession of each seal under section 473 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(e)With intent to cause injury to B, A institutes a criminal proceeding against him, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such proceeding, and also falsely accuses B of having committed an offence, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such charge. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, two offences under section 211 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(f)A with intent to cause injury to B, falsely accuses him of having committed an offence, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such charge. On the trial, A gives false evidence against B, intending thereby to cause B to be convicted of a capital offence. A may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under sections 211 and 194 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(g)A with six others, commits the offences, of rioting, grievous hurt and assaulting a public servant endeavouring in the discharge of his duty as such to suppress the riot. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under sections 147, 325 and 152 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(h)A threatens B, C and D at the same time with injury to their persons with intent to cause alarm to them. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, each of the three offences under section 506 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
The separate charges referred to in illustrations (a) to (h) respectively, may be tried at the same time.

Illustrations to sub-section (3)
(i)A wrongfully strikes B with a cane. A may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under sections 352 and 323 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(j)Several stolen sacks of corn are made over to A and B, who knew they are stolen property, for the purpose of concealing them. A and B thereupon voluntarily assist each other to conceal the sacks at the bottom of a grain-pit. A and B may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under sections 411 and 414 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(k)A exposes her child with the knowledge that she is thereby likely to cause its death. The child dies in consequence of such exposure. A may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under sections 317 and 304 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(l)A dishonestly uses a forged document as genuine evidence, in order to convict B, a public servant of an offence under section 167 of the Indian Penal Code. A may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under sections 471 (read with section 466) and 196 of that Code (45 of 1860).
Illustration to sub-section (4)
(m)A commits robbery on B, and in doing so voluntarily causes hurt to him. A may be separately charged, with and convicted of offences under sections 323, 392 and 394 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

221. Where it is doubtful what offence has been committed

(1) If a single act or series of acts is of such a nature that it is doubtful which of several offences the facts which can be proved will constitute, the accused may be charged with having committed all or any of such offences, and any number of such charges may be tried at once; or he may be charged in the alternative with having committed some one of the said offences.
(2) If in such a case the accused is charged with one offence, and it appears in evidence that he committed a different offence for which he might have been charged under the provisions of sub-section (1), he may be convicted of the offence which he is shown to have committed, although he was not charged with it.

Illustrations
(a)A is accused of an act which may amount to theft, or receiving stolen property, or criminal breach of trust or cheating. He may be charged with theft, receiving stolen property, criminal breach of trust and cheating, or he may be charged with having committed theft, or receiving stolen property or criminal breach of trust or cheating.

(b)In the case mentioned, A is only charged with theft. It appears that he committed the offence of criminal breach of trust, or that of receiving stolen goods. He may be convicted of criminal breach of trust or of receiving stolen goods (as the case may be) though he was not charged with such offence.

(c)A states on oath before the Magistrate that he saw B hit C with a club. Before the Sessions Court A states on oath that B never hit C. A may be charged in the alternative and convicted of intentionally giving false evidence, although it cannot to be proved which of these contradictory statements was false.

222. When offence proved included in offence charged

(1) When a person is charged with an offence consisting of several particulars, a combination of some only of which constitutes a complete minor offence, and such combination is proved, but the remaining particulars are not proved, he may be convicted of the minor offence, though he was not charged with it.
(2) When a person is charged with an offence and facts are proved which reduce it to a minor offence, he may he convicted of the minor offence, although he is not charged with it.
(3) When a person is charged with an offence, he may be convicted of an attempt to commit such offence although the attempt is not separately charged.
(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise a conviction of any minor offence where the conditions requisite for the initiation of proceedings in respect of that minor offence have not been satisfied.
Illustrations

( a)A is charged under section 407 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) with criminal breach of trust in respect of property entrusted to him as a carrier. It appears, that he did commit criminal breach of trust under section 406 of that Code in respect of the property, but that it was not entrusted to him as a carrier. He may be convicted of criminal breach of trust under the said section 406.

(b)A is charged under section 325 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), with causing grievous hurt. He proves that he acted on grave and sudden provocation. He may be convicted under section 335 of that Code.

223. What persons may be charged jointly

The following persons may be charged and tried together, namely:-
(a)persons accused of the same offence committed in the course of the same transaction;
(b)persons accused of an offence and persons accused of abetment of, or attempt to commit, such offence;
(c)persons accused of more than one offence of the same kind, within the meaning of section 219 committed by them jointly within the period of twelve months;
(d)persons accused of different offences committed in the course of the same transaction;
(e)persons accused of an offence which includes theft, extortion, cheating, or criminal misappropriation, and persons accused of receiving or retaining, or assisting in the disposal or concealment of, property possession of which is alleged to have been transferred by any such offence committed by the first-named persons, or of abetment of or attempting to commit any such last-named offence;
(f)persons accused of offences under sections 411 and 414 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or either of those sections in respect of stolen property the possession of which has been transferred by one offence;
(g)persons accused of any offence under Chapter XII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) relating to counterfeit coin and persons accused of any other offence under the said Chapter relating to the same coin, or of abetment of or attempting to commit any such offence; and the provisions contained in the former part of this Chapter shall, so far as may be, apply to all such charges:
Provided that where a number of persons are charged with separate offences and such persons do not fall within any of the categories specified in this section, the Magistrate or Court of Sessions may, if such persons by an application in writing, so desire, and if he is satisfied that such persons would not be prejudicially affected thereby, and it is expedient so to do, try all such persons together.

224. Withdrawal of remaining charges on conviction on one of several charges

When a charge containing more heads than one is framed against the same person, and when a conviction has been had on one or more of them, the complainant, or the officer conducting the prosecution, may, with the consent, of the Court, withdraw the remaining charge or charges, or the Court of its own accord may stay the inquiry into, or trial of, such charge or charges and such withdrawal shall have the effect of an acquittal on such charge or charges, unless the conviction be set aside, in which case the said Court (subject to the order of the Court setting aside the conviction) may proceed with the inquiry into, or trial of, the charge or charges so withdrawn.

Devider

Chapter XVIII Trial Before a Court of Session

Chapter XIX  Trial of Warrant-Cases by Magistrates

Chapter XX Trial of Summons-Cases by Magistrates 

Chapter XXI  Summary Trials

Devider

Chapter 21A Plea Bargaining

265A. Application of the Chapter

(1) This Chapter shall apply in respect of an accused against whom–

(a)the report has been forwarded by the officer in charge of the police station under section 173 alleging therein that an offence appears to have been committed by him other than an offence for which the punishment of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years has been provided under the law for the time being in force; or

(b)a Magistrate has taken cognizance of an offence on complaint, other than an offence for which the punishment of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years, has been provided under the law for the time being in force, and after examining complainant and witnesses under section 200, issued the process under section 204, but does not apply where such offence affects the socio-economic condition of the country or has been committed against a woman, or a child below the age of fourteen years.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the Central Government shall, by notification, determine the offences under the law for the time being in force which shall be the offences affecting the socio-economic condition of the country.

265B. Application for plea bargaining

(1) A person accused of an offence may file an application for plea bargaining in the Court in which such offence is pending for trial.

(2) The application under sub-section (1) shall contain a brief description of the case relating to which the application is filed including the offence to which the case relates and shall be accompanied by an affidavit sworn by the accused stating therein that he has voluntarily preferred, after understanding the nature and extent of punishment provided under the law for the offence, the plea bargaining in his case and that he has not previously been convicted by a Court in a case in which he had been charged with the same offence.
(3) After receiving the application under sub-section (1), the Court shall issue notice to the Public Prosecutor or the complainant of the case, as the case may be, and to the accused to appear on the date fixed for the case.
(4) When the Public Prosecutor or the complainant of the case, as the case may be, and the accused appear on the date fixed under sub-section (3), the Court shall examine the accused in camera, where the other party in the case shall not be present, to satisfy itself that the accused has filed the application voluntarily and where –
(a)the Court is satisfied that the application has been filed by the accused voluntarily, it shall provide time to the Public Prosecutor or the complainant of the case, as the case may be, and the accused to work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case which may include giving to the victim by the accused the compensation and other expenses during the case and thereafter fix the date for further hearing of the case;
(b)the Court finds that the application has been filed involuntarily by the accused or he has previously been convicted by a Court in a case in which he had been charged with the same offence, it shall proceed further in accordance with the provisions of this Code from the stage such application has been filed under sub-section (1).

265C. Guidelines for mutually satisfactory disposition

In working out a mutually satisfactory disposition under clause (a) of sub-section (4) of section 265B, the Court shall follow the following procedure, namely:
(a)in a case instituted on a police report, the Court shall issue notice to the Public Prosecutor, the police officer who has investigated the case, the accused and the victim of the case to participate in the meeting to work out a satisfactory disposition of the case:
Provided that throughout such process of working out a satisfactory disposition of the case, it shall be the duty of the Court to ensure that the entire process is completed voluntarily by the parties participating in the meeting:
Provided further that the accused may, if he so desires, participate in such meeting with his pleader, if any, engaged in the case;
(b)in a case instituted otherwise than on police report, the Court shall issue notice to the accused and the victim of the case to participate in a meeting to work out a satisfactory disposition of the case:
Provided that it shall be the duty of the Court to ensure, throughout such process of working out a satisfactory disposition of the case, that it is completed voluntarily by the parties participating in the meeting:
Provided further that if the victim of the case or the accused, as the case may be, so desires, he may participate in such meeting with his pleader engaged in the case.

265D. Report of the mutually satisfactory disposition to be submitted before the Court

Where in a meeting under section 265C, a satisfactory disposition of the case has been worked out, the Court shall prepare a report of such disposition which shall be signed by the presiding officer of the Court and all other persons who participated in the meeting and if no such disposition has been worked out, the Court shall record such observation and proceed further in accordance with the provisions of this Code from the stage the application under sub-section (1) of section 265B has been filed in such case.

265E. Disposal of the case

Where a satisfactory disposition of the case has been worked out under section 265D, the Court shall dispose of the case in the following manner, namely:
(a)the Court shall award the compensation to the victim in accordance with the disposition under section 265D and hear the parties on the quantum of the punishment, releasing of the accused on probation of good conduct or after admonition under section 360 or for dealing with the accused under the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958(20 of 1958) or any other law for the time being in force and follow the procedure specified in the succeeding clauses for imposing the punishment on the accused;
(b)after hearing the parties under clause (a), if the Court is of the view that section 360 or the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958(20 of 1958) or any other law for the time being in force are attracted in the case of the accused, it may release the accused on probation or provide the benefit of any such law, as the case may be;
(c)after hearing the parties under clause (b), if the Court finds that minimum punishment has been provided under the law for the offence committed by the accused, it may sentence the accused to half of such minimum punishment;
(d)in case after hearing the parties under clause (b), the Court finds that the offence committed by the accused is not covered under clause (b) or clause (c), then, it may sentence the accused to one-fourth of the punishment provided or extendable, as the case may be, for such offence.

265F. Judgment of the Court

The Court shall deliver its judgment in terms of section 265E in the open Court and the same shall be signed by the presiding officer of the Court.

265G. Finality of the judgment

The judgment delivered by the Court under section 265G shall be final and no appeal (except the special leave petition under article 136 and writ petition under articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution) shall lie in any Court against such judgment.

265H. Power of the Court in plea bargaining

A Court shall have, for the purposes of discharging its functions under this Chapter, all the powers vested in respect of bail, trial of offences and other matters relating to the disposal of a cast in such Court under this Code.

265I. Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set off against the sentence of imprisonment

The provisions of section 428 shall apply, for setting off the period of detention undergone by the accused against the sentence of imprisonment imposed under this Chapter, in the same manner as they apply in respect of the imprisonment under other provisions of this Code.

265J. Savings

The provisions of this Chapter shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other provisions of this Code and nothing in such other provisions shall be construed to constrain the meaning of any provision of this Chapter.
Explanation.–For the purposes of this Chapter, the expression “Public Prosecutor” has the meaning assigned to it under clause (u) of section 2 and includes an Assistant Public Prosecutor appointed under section 25.

265K. Statements of accused not to be used

Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force, the statements or facts stated by an accused in an application for plea bargaining filed under section 265B shall not be used for any other purpose except for the purpose of this Chapter.

265L. Non-application of the Chapter

Nothing in this Chapter shall apply to any juvenile or child as defined in clause (k) of section 2 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 (56 of 2000).”

Devider

Chapter XXII     Attendance of Persons Confined or Detained in Prisons

266. Definitions

In this Chapter,—
(a)”detained “includes detained under any law providing for preventive detention;
(b) “prison” includes,—
(i)any place which has been declared by the State Government, by general or special order, to be a subsidiary jail;
(ii)any reformatory, Borstal institution or other institution of a like nature.

267. Power to require attendance of prisoners

(1)
Wherever, in the course of an inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, it appears to a Criminal Court.—
(a)that a person confined or detained in a prison should be brought before the Court for answering to a charge of an offence, or for the purpose of any proceedings against him, or
(b)that it is necessary for the ends of justice to examine such person as a witness,
the Court may make an order requiring the officer in charge of the prison to produce such person before the Court for answering to the charge or for the purpose of such proceeding or as the case may be, for giving evidence.
(2)
Where an order under sub-section (1) is made by a Magistrate of the second class, it shall not be forwarded to, or acted upon by the officer in charge of the prison unless it is countersigned by the Chief Judicial Magistrate to whom such Magistrate is subordinate.
(3)
Every order submitted for countersigning under sub-section (2) shall be accompanied by a statement of the facts which, in the opinion of the Magistrate, render the order necessary, and the Chief Judicial Magistrate to whom it is submitted may, after considering such statement, decline to countersign the order.

268. Power of State Government to exclude certain persons from operation of section 267

(1)
The State Government may, at any time having regard to the matters specified in sub-section (2), by general of special order, direct that any person or class of persons shall not be removed from the prison in which he or they may be confined or detained and thereupon, so long as the order remains to force, no order made under section 267, whether before or after the order of the State Government, shall have effect in respect of such person or class of persons.
(2)
Before making an order under sub-section (1), the State Government shall have regard to the following matters, namely:—
(a)the nature of the offence for which, or the grounds on which, the person or class of persons has been ordered to be confined or detained in prison;
(b)the likelihood of the disturbance of public order if the person or class of persons is allowed to be removed from the prison;
(c)the public interest, generally.

269. Officer in charge of prison to abstain from carrying out order in certain contingencies

Where the person in respect of whom an order is made under section 267,—
(a)is by reason of sickness or infirmity unfit to be removed from the prison; or
(b)is under committal for trial or under remand pending trial or pending a preliminary investigation; or
(c)is in custody for a period which would expire before the expiration of the time required for complying with the order and for taking him back to the prison in which he is confined or detained; or
(d)is a person to whom an order made by the State Government under section 268 applies,
the officer in charge of the prison shall abstain from carrying out the Court’s order and shall send to the Court a statement of reasons for so abstaining:
Provided that where the attendance of such person is required for giving evidence at a place not more than twenty-five kilometers distance from the prison, the officer in charge of the prison shall not so abstain for the reason mentioned in clause (b).

270. Prisoner to be brought to Court in custody

Subject to the provisions of section 269, the officer in charge of the prison shall, upon delivery of an order made under sub-section (1) of section 267 and duly countersigned, where necessary, under sub­section (2) thereof, cause the person named in the order to be taken to the Court in which his attendance is required, so as to be present there at the time mentioned in the order, and shall cause him to be kept in custody in or near the Court until he has been examined or until the Court authorises him to be taken back to the prison in which he was confined or detained.

271. Power to issue commission for examination of witness in prison

The provisions of this Chapter shall be without prejudice to the power of the Court to issue, under section 284, a commission for the examination, as a witness, of any person confined or detained in a prison; and the provisions of Part B of Chapter XXIII shall apply in relation to the examination on commission of any such person in the prison as they apply in relation to the examination on commission of any other person.

Devider

Chapter 23

Evidence in Inquiries and Trials [S 272-299]

A. — Mode of taking and recording evidence

272. Language of Courts

The State Government may determine what shall be, for purposes of this Code, the language of each Court within the State other than the High Court.

273. Evidence to be taken in presence of accused

Except as otherwise expressly provided, all evidence taken in the course of the trial or other proceeding shall be taken in the presence of the accused or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader.

Provided that where the evidence of a woman below the age of eighteen years who is alleged to have been subjected to rape or any other sexual offence, is to be recorded, the court may take appropriate measures to ensure that such woman is not confronted by the accused while at the same time ensuring the right of cross-examination of the accused.

Explanation.—In this section “accused” “includes a person in relation to whom any proceeding under Chapter VIII has been commenced under this Code.

274. Record in summons-cases and inquiries

(1) In all summons-cases tried before a Magistrate, in all inquiries under sections 145 to 148 (both inclusive), and in all proceedings under section 446 otherwise than in the course of a trial, the Magistrate shall, as the examination of each witness proceeds, make a memorandum of the substance of the evidence in the language of the Court:
Provided that if the Magistrate is unable to make such memorandum himself, he shall after recording the reason of his inability, cause such memorandum to be made in writing or from his dictation in open Court.
(2) Such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

275. Record in warrant-cases

(1) In all warrant-cases tried before a Magistrate, the evidence of each witness shall, as his examination proceeds, be taken down in writing either by the Magistrate himself or by his dictation in open Court or, where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence, by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.
Provided that evidence of a witness under this sub-section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means in the presence of the advocate of the person accused of the offence.
(2) Where the Magistrate causes the evidence to be taken down, he shall record a certificate that the evidence could not be taken down by himself for the reasons referred to in sub-section (1).
(3) Such evidence shall ordinarily be taken down in the form of a narrative, by the Magistrate may, in his discretion take down, or cause to be taken down, any part of such evidence in the form of question and answer.
(4) The evidence so taken down shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

276. Record in trial before Court of Session

(1) In all trials before a Court of Session, the evidence of each witness shall, as his examination proceeds, be taken down in writing either by the presiding Judge himself or by his dictation in open Court or under his direction and superintendence, by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.
(2) Such evidence shall ordinarily be taken down in the form of a narrative, but the presiding Judge may, in his discretion take down or cause to be taken down, any part of such evidence in the form of question and answer.
(3) The evidence so taken down shall be signed by the presiding Judge and shall form part of the record.

277. Language of record of evidence

In every case where evidence is taken down under section 275 or section 276,—

(a)if the witness gives evidence in the language of the Court, it shall be taken down in that language;
(b)if he gives evidence in any other language, it may, if practicable, be taken down in that language, and if it is not practicable to do so, a true translation of the evidence in the language of the Court shall be prepared as the examination of the witness proceeds, signed by the Magistrate or Presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record;
(c)where under clause (b) evidence is taken down in a language other than the language of the Court, a true translation thereof in the language of the Court shall be prepared as soon as practicable, signed by the Magistrate or Presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record:
Provided that when under clause (b) evidence is taken down in English and a translation thereof in the language of the Court is not required by any of the parties, the Court may dispense with such translation.

278. Procedure in regard to such evidence when completed

(1) As the evidence of each witness taken under section 275 or section 276 is completed, it shall be read over to him in the presence of the accused, if in attendance, or of his pleader, if he appears by pleader, and shall, if necessary, be corrected.
(2)
If the witness denies the correctness of any part of the evidence when the same is read over to him, the magistrate or presiding Judge may, instead of correcting the evidence, make a memorandum thereon of the objection made to it by the witness and shall add such remarks as he thinks necessary.
(3)
If the record of the evidence is in a language different from that in which it has been given and the witness does not understand that language, the record shall be interpreted to him in the language in which it was given, or in a language which he understands.

279. Interpretation of evidence to accused or his pleader

(1)
Whenever any evidence is given in a language not understood by the accused, and he is present in Court in person, it shall be interpreted to him in open Court in a language understood by him.
(2)
If he appears by pleader and the evidence is given in a language other than the language of the Court and not understood by the pleader, it shall be interpreted to such pleader in that language.
(3)
When documents are put for the purpose of formal proof, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to interpret as much thereof as appears necessary.

280. Remarks respecting demeanour of witness

When a presiding Judge or Magistrate has recorded the evidence of a witnesses, he shall also record such remarks (if any) as he thinks material respecting the demeanour of such witness whilst under examination.

281. Record of examination of accused

(1) Whenever the accused is examined by a Metropolitan Magistrate, the Magistrate shall make a memorandum of the substance of the examination of the accused in the language of the Court and such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.
(2) Whenever the accused is examined by any Magistrate other than a Metropolitan Magistrate, or by a Court of Session, the whole of such examination, including every question put to him and every answer given by him, shall be recorded in full by the Presiding Judge or Magistrate himself or where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.
(3) The record shall, if practicable, be in the language in which the accused is examined or, if that is not practicable in the language of the Court.
(4)
The record shall be shown or read to the accused, or, if he docs not understand the language in which it is written, shall be interpreted to him in a language which he understands, and he shall be at liberty to explain or add to his answers.
(5)
It shall thereafter be signed by the accused and by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, who shall certify under his own hand that the examination was taken in his presence and hearing and that the record contains a full and true account of the statement made by the accused.
(6)
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to apply to the examination of an accused person in the course of a summary trial.

282. Interpreter to be bound to interpret truthfully

When the services of an interpreter are, required by any Criminal Court for the interpretation of any evidence or statement, he shall be bound to state the true interpretation of such evidence or statement.

283. Record in High Court

Every High Court may, by general rule, prescribe the manner in which the evidence of witnesses and the examination of the accused shall be taken down in cases coming before it; and such evidence and examination shall be taken down in accordance with such rule.

B. — Commissions for the examination of witnesses

284. When attendance of witness may be dispensed with and commission issued

(1)
Whenever, in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, it appears to a Court of Magistrate that the examination of a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, and that the attendance of such witness cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable, the Court or Magistrate may dispense with such attendance and may issue a commission for the examination of the witness in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter:
Provided that where the examination of the President or the Vice-President of India or the Governor of a State or the Administrator of a Union Territory as a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, a commission shall be issued for the examination of such a witness.
(2)
The Court may, when issuing a commission for the examination of a witness for the prosecution direct that such amount as the Court considers reasonable to meet the expenses of the accused including the pleader’s fees, be paid by the prosecution.

285. Commission to whom to be issued

(1)
If the witness is within the territories to which this Code extends, the commission shall be directed to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate, as the case may be, within whose local jurisdiction the witness is to be found.
(2)
If the witness is in India, but in a State or an area to which this Code does not extend, the commission shall be directed to such Court or officer as the Central Government may, by notification specify in this behalf.
(3)
If the witness is in a country or place outside India and arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country or place for taking the evidence of witnesses in relation to criminal matters, the commission shall be issued in such form, directed to such Court or officer, and sent to such authority for transmission as the Central Government may, by notification prescribe in this behalf.

286. Execution of commissions

Upon receipt of the commission, the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate of Chief Judicial Magistrate, or such Metropolitan or Judicial Magistrate as he may appoint in this behalf, shall summon the witness before him or proceed to the place where the witness is, and shall lake down his evidence in the same manner, and may for this purpose exercise the same powers, as in trials of warrant-cases under this Code.

287. Parties may examine witnesses

(1) The parties to any proceeding under this Code in which a commission is issued may respectively forward any interrogatories in writing which the Court or Magistrate directing the commission may think relevant to the issue, and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate, Court or officer to whom the Commission is directed, or to whom the duty of executing it is delegated, to examine the witness upon such interrogatories.
(2) Any such party may appear before such Magistrate, Court or officer by pleader, or if not in custody, in person, and may examine, cross-examine and re-examine (as the case may be) the said witness.

288. Return of commission

(1)
After any commission issued under section 284 has been duly executed, it shall be returned, together with the deposition of the witness examined thereunder, to the Court or Magistrate issuing the commission; and the commission, the return thereto and the deposition shall be open at all reasonable times to inspection of the parties, and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in the case by either party, and shall form part of the record.
(2)
Any deposition so taken, if it satisfies the conditions prescribed by section 33 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872) may also be received in evidence at any subsequent stage of the case before another Court.

289. Adjournment of proceeding

In every case in which a commission is issued under section 284, the inquiry, trial or other proceeding may be adjourned for a specified time reasonably sufficient for the execution and return of the commission.

290. Execution of foreign commissions

(1)
The provisions of section 286 and so much of section 287 and section 288 as relate to the execution of a commission and its return shall apply in respect of commissions issued by any of the Courts, Judges or Magistrates hereinafter mentioned as they apply to commissions issued under section 284.
(2)
The Courts, Judges and Magistrates referred to in sub-section (1) are—
(a)any such Court, Judge or Magistrate exercising jurisdiction within an area in India to which this Code does not extend, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf;
(b)any Court, Judge or Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in any such country or place outside India, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, and having authority under the law in force in that country or place, to issue commissions for the examination of witnesses in relation to criminal matters.

291. Deposition of medical witness

(1)
The deposition of a civil surgeon or other medical witness, taken and attested by a Magistrate in the presence of the accused, or taken on commission under this Chapter, may be given in, evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although the deponent is not called as a witness.
(2)
The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such deponent as to the subject-matter of his deposition.

291A. Identification report of Magistrate

(1)
Any document purporting to be a report of identification under the hand of an Executive Magistrate in respect of a person or property may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although such Magistrate is not called as a witness:
Provided that where such report contains a statement of any suspect or witness to which the provisions of section 21, section 32, section 33, section 155 or section 157, as the case may be, of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872(1 of 1872), apply, such statement shall not be used under this sub-section except in accordance with the provisions of those sections.
(2)
The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or of the accused, summon and examine such Magistrate as to the subject matter of the said report.

292. Evidence of officers of the Mint

(1)
Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of any such officer of any Mint or of any Note Printing Press or of any Security Printing Press (including the officer of the Controller of Stamps and Stationery) or of any Forensic Department or Division of Forensic Science Laboratory or any Government Examiner of Questioned Documents or any State Examiner of Questioned Documents, as the case may be as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination and report in the course of any proceeding under this Code, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although such officer is not called as a witness.
(2)
The Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such officer as to the subject-matter of this report:
Provided that no such officer shall be summoned to produce any records on which the report is based.
(3)
Without prejudice to the provisions of sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872) no such officer shall,except with the permission of the General Manager or any officer in charge of any Mint or of any Note Printing Press or of any Security Printing Press or of any Forensic Department or any officer in charge of the Forensic Science Laboratory or of the Government Examiner of Questioned Documents Organisation or of the State Examiner of Questioned Documents Organisation, as the case may be, be permitted-
(a)to give any evidence derived from any unpublished official records on which the report is based; or
(b)to disclose the nature or particulars of any test applied by him in the course of the examination of the matter or thing.

293. Reports of certain Government scientific experts

(1)
Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of a Government scientific expert to whom this section applies, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination or analysis and report in the course of any proceeding under this Code, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code.
(2)
The Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such expert as to the subject-matter of his report.
(3)
Where any such expert is summoned by a Court and he is unable to attend personally, he may, unless the Court has expressly directed him to appear personally, depute any responsible officer working with him to attend the Court, if such officer is conversant with the facts of the case and can satisfactorily depose in Court on his behalf.
(4)
This section applies to the following Government scientific experts, namely:–
(a)any Chemical Examiner or Assistant Chemical Examiner to Government;
(b)the Chief Controller of Explosives;
(c)the Director of the Finger Print Bureau;
(d)the Director, Haffkeine Institute, Bombay;
(e)the Director Deputy Director or Assistant Director of a Central Forensic Science Laboratory or a State Forensic Science Laboratory;
(f)the Serologist to the Government.
(g)any other Government scientific expert specified, by notification, by the Central Government for this purpose.

294. No formal proof of certain documents

(1) Where any document is filed before any Court by the prosecution or the accused, the particulars of every such document shall be included in a list and the prosecution or the accused, as the case may be, or the pleader for the prosecution or the accused, if any, shall be called upon to admit or deny the genuineness of each such document.
(2) The list of documents shall be in such form as may be prescribed by the State Government.
(3) Where the genuineness of any document is not disputed, such document may be read in evidence in any inquiry trial or other proceeding under this Code without proof of the signature of the person to whom it purports to be signed:
Provided that the Court may, in its discretion, require such signature to be proved.

295. Affidavit in proof of conduct of public servants

When any application is made to any Court in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, and allegations are made therein respecting any public servant, the applicant may give evidence of the facts alleged in the application by affidavit, and the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that evidence relating to such facts be so given.

296. Evidence of formal character on affidavit

(1) The evidence of any person whose evidence is of a formal character may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code.
(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit.

297. Authorities before whom affidavits may be sworn

(1) The evidence of any person whose evidence is of a formal character may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code.
(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit.

298. Previous conviction of acquittal how proved

In any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, a previous conviction or acquittal may be proved, in addition to any other mode provided by any, law for the time being in force,—

(a)by an extract certified under the hand of the officer having the custody of the records of the Court in which such conviction or acquittal was held, to be a copy of the sentence or order, or

(b)in case of a conviction, either by a certificate signed by the officer in charge of the jail in which the punishment or any part thereof was undergone, or by production of the warrant of commitment under which the punishment was suffered.
together with, in each of such cases evidence as to the identity of the accused person with the person so convicted or acquitted.

299. Record of evidence in absence of accused

(1) If it is proved that an accused person has absconded, and that there is no immediate prospect of arresting him, the Court competent to try or commit for trial such person for the offence complained of, may, in his absence, examine the witnesses (if any) produced on behalf of the prosecution, and record their depositions and any such deposition may, on the arrest of such person, be given in evidence against him on the inquiry into or trial for, the offence with which he is charged, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or cannot be found or his presence cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable.

(2) If it appears that an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life has been committed by some person or persons unknown, the High Court or the Sessions Judge may direct that any Magistrate of the first class shall hold an inquiry and examine any witnesses who can give evidence concerning the offence and any depositions so taken may be given in evidence against any person who is subsequently accused of the offence, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or beyond the limits of India.

Devider

Chapter XXIV-  General Provisions as to Inquiries and Trials [sec 300 to 327]

Devider

Chapter 25

Provisions as to Accused Persons of Unsound Mind

328. Procedure in case of accused being lunatic

(1)When a Magistrate holding an inquiry has reason to believe that the person against whom the inquiry is being held is of unsound mind and consequently incapable of making his defence, the Magistrate shall inquire into the fact of such unsoundness of mind, and shall cause such person to be examined by the civil surgeon of the district or such other medical officer as the Stale Government may direct, and thereupon shall examine such surgeon or other officer as a witness and shall reduce the examination to writing.
(1A) If the civil surgeon finds the accused to be of unsound mind, he shall refer such person to a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist for care, treatment and prognosis of the condition and the psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, as the case may be, shall inform the Magistrate whether the accused is suffering from unsoundness of mind or mental retardation:
Provided that if the accused is aggrieved by the information given by the psychiatric or clinical psychologist, as the case may be, to the Magistrate, he may prefer an appeal before the Medical Board which shall consist of–
(a)head of psychiatry unit in the nearest government hospital; and
(b)a faculty member in psychiatry in the nearest medical college.
(2)Pending such examination and inquiry, the Magistrate may deal with such person in accordance with the provisions of section 330.
(3)If such Magistrate is informed that the person referred to in subsection (1A) is a person of unsound mind, the Magistrate shall further determine whether the unsoundness of mind renders the accused incapable of entering defence and if the accused is found so incapable, the Magistrate shall record a finding to that effect, and shall examine the record of evidence produced by the prosecution and after hearing the advocate of the accused but without questioning the accused, if he finds that no prima facie case is made out against the accused, he shall, instead of postponing the enquiry, discharge the accused and deal with him in the manner provided under section 330:
Provided that if the Magistrate finds that a prima facie case is made out against the accused in respect of whom a finding of unsoundness of mind is arrived at, he shall postpone the proceeding for such period, as in the opinion of the psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, is required for the treatment of the accused, and order the accused to be dealt with as provided under section 330.
(4) If such Magistrate is informed that the person referred to in subsection (1A) is a person with mental retardation, the Magistrate shall further determine whether the mental retardation renders the accused incapable of entering defence, and if the accused is found so incapable, the Magistrate shall order closure of the inquiry and deal with the accused in the manner provided under section 330,

329. Procedure in case of person of unsound mind tried before Court

(1) If at the trial of any person before a Magistrate or Court of Session, it appears to the Magistrate or Court that such person is of unsound mind and consequently incapable of making his defence, the Magistrate or Court shall, in the first instance, try the fact of such unsoundness and incapacity, and if the Magistrate or Court, after considering such medical and other evidence as may be produced before him or it, is satisfied of the fact, he or it shall record a finding to that effect and shall postpone further proceedings in the case.
(1A) If during trial, the Magistrate or Court of Sessions finds the accused to be of unsound mind, he or it shall refer such person to a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist for care and treatment, and the psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, as the case may be shall report to the Magistrate or Court whether the accused is suffering from unsoundness of mind:
Provided that if the accused is aggrieved by the information given by the psychiatric or clinical psychologist, as the case may be, to the Magistrate, he may prefer an appeal before the Medical Board which shall consist of–
(a)head of psychiatry unit in the nearest government hospital; and
(b)a faculty member in psychiatry in the nearest medical college.
(2) If such Magistrate or Court is informed that the person referred to in sub-section (1A) is a person of unsound mind, the Magistrate or Court shall further determine whether unsoundness of mind renders the accused incapable of entering defence and if the accused is found so incapable, the Magistrate or Court shall record a finding to that effect and shall examine the record of evidence produced by the prosecution and after hearing the advocate of the accused but without questioning the accused, if the Magistrate or Court finds that no prima facie case is made out against the accused, he or it shall, instead of postponing the trial, discharge the accused and deal with him in the manner provided under section 330:
Provided that if the Magistrate or Court finds that a prima facie case is made out against the accused in respect of whom a finding of unsoundness of mind is arrived at, he shall postpone the trial for such period, as in the opinion of the psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, is required for the treatment of the accused.
(3) If the Magistrate or Court finds that a prima facie case is made out against the accused and he is incapable of entering defence by reason of mental retardation, he or it shall not hold the trial and order the accused to be dealt with in accordance with section 330.

330. Release of person of unsound mind pending investigation or trial

(1) Whenever a person if found under section 328 or section 329 to be incapable of entering defence by reason of unsoundness of mind or mental retardation, the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be shall, whether the case is one in which bail may be taken or not, order release of such person on bail:
Provided that the accused is suffering from unsoundness of mind or mental retardation which does not mandate in-patient treatment and a friend or relative undertakes to obtain regular out-patient psychiatric treatment from the nearest medical facility and to prevent from doing injury to himself or to any other person.
(2) If the case is one in which, in the opinion of the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be, bail cannot be granted or if an appropriate undertaking is not given, he or it shall order the accused to be kept in such a place where regular psychiatric treatment can be provided, and shall report the action taken to the State Government:

Provided that no order for the detention of the accused in a lunatic asylum shall be made otherwise than in accordance with such rules as the State Government may have made under the Mental Health Act, 1987 (14 of 1987).
(3) Whenever a person is found under section 328 or section 329 to be incapable of entering defence by reason of unsoundness of mind or mental retardation, the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be, shall keeping in view the nature of the act committed and the extent of unsoundness of mind or mental retardation, further determine if the release of the accused can be ordered:
Provided that–
(a)if on the basis of medical opinion or opinion of a specialist, the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be, decide to order discharge of the accused, as provided under section 328 or section 329, such release may be ordered, if sufficient security is given that the accused shall be prevented from doing injury to himself or to any other person;
(b)if the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be, is of opinion that discharge of the accused cannot be ordered, the transfer of the accused to a residential facility for persons of unsound mind or mental retardation may be ordered wherein the accused may be provided care and appropriate education and training.

331. Resumption of inquiry or trial

(1) Whenever an inquiry or a trial is postponed under section 328 or section 329, the Magistrate or Court as the case may be, may at any time after the person concerned has ceased to be of unsound mind, resume the inquiry or trial, and require the accused to appear or be brought before such Magistrate or Court.
(2) When the accused has been released under section 330, and the sureties for his appearance produce him to the officer whom the Magistrate or Court appoints in this behalf, the certificate of such officer that the accused is capable of making his defence shall be receivable in evidence.

332. Procedure on accused appearing before Magistrate or Court

(1) If, when the accused appears or is again brought before the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be, the Magistrate or Court considers him capable of making his defence, the inquiry or trial shall proceed.
(2) If the Magistrate or Court considers the accused to be still incapable of making his defence, the Magistrate or Court shall act according to the provisions or section 328 or section 329, as the case may be, and if the accused is found to be of unsound mind and consequently incapable of making his defence, shall deal with such accused in accordance with the provisions of section 330.

333. When accused appears to have been of sound mind

When the accused appears to be of sound mind at the time of inquiry or trial, and the Magistrate is satisfied from the evidence given before him that there is reason to believe that the accused committed an act, which, if he had been of sound mind, would have been an offence, and that he was, at the time when the act was committed, by reason of unsoundness of mind, incapable of knowing the nature of the act or that it was wrong or contrary to law, the Magistrate shall proceed with the case, and, if the accused ought to be tried by the Court of Session, commit him for trial before the Court of Session.

334. Judgment of acquittal on ground of unsoundness of mind

Whenever any person is acquitted upon the ground that, at the time at which he is alleged to have committed an offence, he was, by reason of unsoundness of mind, incapable of knowing the nature of the act alleged as constituting the offence, or that it was wrong or contrary to law, the finding shall state specifically whether he committed the act or not.

335. Person acquitted on such ground to be detained in safe custody

(1) Whenever the finding states that the accused person committed the act alleged, the magistrate or Court before whom or which the trial has been held shall, if such act would, but for the incapacity found have constituted an offence,—
(a)order such person to be detained in safe custody in such place and manner as the Magistrate or Court thinks fit; or
(b)order such person to be delivered to any relative or friend of such person.
(2) No order for the detention of the accused in a lunatic asylum shall be made under clause (a) of sub-section (1) otherwise than in accordance with such rules as the State Government may have made under the Indian Lunacy Act, 1912 (4 of 1912).
(3) No order for the delivery of the accused to a relative or friend shall be made under clause (b) of sub-section (1) except upon the application of such relative or friend and on his giving security to the satisfaction of the Magistrate or Court that the person delivered shall—
(a)be properly taken care of and prevented from doing injury to himself or to any other person;
(b)be produced for the inspection of such officer, and at such times and places, as the State Government may direct.
(4) The Magistrate or Court shall report to the State Government the action taken under sub-section (1).

336. Power of State Government to empower officer in charge to discharge

The State Government may empower the officer in charge of the jail in which a person is confined under the provisions of section 330 or section 335 to discharge all or any of the functions of the Inspector-General of Prisons under section 337 of section 338.

337. Procedure where lunatic prisoner is reported capable of making his defence

If such person is detained under the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 330, and in the case of a person detained in a jail, the Inspector-General of Prisons, or, in the case of a person detained in a lunatic asylum, the visitors of such asylum or any two of them shall certify that, in his or their opinion, such person is capable of making his defence, he shall be taken before the Magistrate or Court, as the case may be, at such time as the Magistrate or Court appoints, and the Magistrate or Court shall deal with such person under the provisions of section 332; and the certificate of such Inspector-General or visitors as aforesaid shall be receivable as evidence.

338. Procedure where lunatic detained is declared fit to be released

(1) If such person is detained under the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 330, or section 335 and such Inspector-General or visitors shall certify that, in his or their judgment, he may be released without danger of his doing injury to himself or to any other person, the State Government may thereupon order him to be released, or to be detained in custody, or to be transferred to a public lunatic asylum if he has not been already sent to such an asylum: and, in case it orders him to be transferred to an asylum, may appoint a Commission, consisting of a judicial and two medical officers.
(2) Such Commission shall make a formal inquiry into the state of mind of such person, take such evidence as is necessary, and shall report to the State Government, which may order his release or detention as it thinks fit.

339. Delivery of lunatic to care of relative or friend

(1) Whenever any relative or friend of any person detained under the provisions of section 330 or section 335 desires that he shall be delivered to his care and custody, the State Government may, upon the application of such relative or friend and on his giving security to the satisfaction of such State Government, that the person delivered shall—
(a)be properly taken care of and prevented from doing injury to himself or to any other person;
(b)be produced for the inspection of such officer, and at such times and places, as the State Government may direct;
(c)in the case of a person detained under sub-section (2) of section 330, be produced when required before such Magistrate or Court,
order such person to be delivered to such relative or friend.
(2) If the person so delivered is accused of any offence, the trial of which has been postponed by reason of his being of unsound mind and incapable of making his defence, and the inspecting officer referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1), certifies at any time to the Magistrate or Court that such person is capable of making his defence, such Magistrate or Court shall call upon the relative or friend to whom such accused was delivered to produce him before the magistrate or Court, and, upon such production the magistrate or Court shall proceed in accordance with the provisions of section 332, and the certificate of the inspecting officer shall be receivable as evidence.

Devider

Chapter XXVI

Provisions as to Offences Affecting the Administration of Justice

340. Procedure in cases mentioned in section 195

(1) When upon an application made to it in this behalf or otherwise any Court is of opinion that it is expedient in the interest of justice that an inquiry should be made into any offence referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 195, which appears to have been committed in or in relation to a proceeding in that Court or, as the case may be, in respect of a document produced or given in evidence in a proceeding in that Court, such Court may, after such preliminary inquiry, if any, as it thinks necessary,-
(a)record a finding to that effect;
(b)make a complaint thereof in writing;
(c)send it to a Magistrate of the first class having jurisdiction;
(d)take sufficient security for the appearance for the accused before such Magistrate, or if the alleged offence is non-bailable and the Court thinks it necessary so to do send the accused in custody to such Magistrate; and
(e)bind over any person to appear and give evidence before such Magistrate.
(2) The power conferred on a Court by sub-section (1) in respect of an offence may, in any case where that Court has neither made a complaint under sub-section (1) in respect of that offence nor rejected an application for the making of such complaint, be exercised by the Court to which such former Court is subordinate within the meaning of sub-section (4) of section 195.
(3) A complaint made under this section shall be signed,-
(a)where the Court making the complaint is a High Court, by such officer of the Court as the Court may appoint;
(b)in any other case, by the presiding officer of the Court or by such officer of the Court as the Court may authorise in writing in this behalf.
(4) In this section, “Court” has the same meaning as in section 195.

341. Appeal

(1) Any person on whose application any Court other than a High Court has refused to make a complaint under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 340, or against whom such a complaint has been made by such Court, may appeal to the Court to which such former Court is subordinate within the meaning of sub-section (4) of section 95, and the superior Court may thereupon, after notice to the parties concerned, direct the withdrawal of the complaint or, as the case may be, making of the complaint which such former Court might have made under section 340, and if it makes such complaint, the provisions of that section shall apply accordingly.
(2)
An order under this section and subject to any such order, an order under section 340, shall be final, and shall not be subject to revision.

342. Power to order Court

Any Court dealing with an application made to it for filing a complaint under section 340 or an appeal under section 341, shall have power to make such order as to costs as may be just.

343. Procedure of Magistrate taking cognizance

(1) A Magistrate to whom a complaint is made under section 340 or section 341, shall, notwithstanding anything contained in Chapter XV proceed, as far as may be, to deal with the case as if it were instituted on a police report.
(2)
Where it is brought to the notice of such Magistrate, or of any other Magistrate to whom the case may have been transferred, that an appeal is pending against the decision arrived at in the judicial proceeding out of which the matter has arisen, he may, if he thinks fit, at any stage, adjourn the hearing of the case until such appeal is decided.

344. Summary procedure for trial for giving false evidence

(1) If, at the time of delivery of any judgment or final order disposing of any judicial proceeding, a Court of Session or Magistrate of the first class expresses an opinion to the effect that any witness appearing in such proceeding had knowingly or wilfully given false evidence or had fabricated false evidence with the intention that such evidence should be used in such proceeding, it or he may, if satisfied that it is necessary and expedient in the interest of justice that the witness should be tried summarily for giving or fabricating, as the case may be, false evidence, take cognizance of the offence and may, after giving the offender a reasonable opportunity of showing cause why he should not be punished for such offence, try such offender summarily and sentence him to imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months, or to fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.
(2)
In every such case the Court shall follow, as nearly as may be practicable, the procedure prescribed for summary trials.
(3)
Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the Court to make a complaint under section 340 for the offence, where it does not choose to proceed under this section.
(4)
Where, after any action is initiated under sub-section (1), it is made to appear to the Court of Session or Magistrate of the first class that an appeal or an application for revision has been preferred or filed against the judgment or order in which the opinion referred to in that sub-section has been expressed, it or he shall stay further proceedings of the trial until the disposal of the appeal or the application for revision, as the case may be, and thereupon the further proceedings of the trial shall abide by the results of the appeal or application for revision.

345. Procedure in certain cases of contempt

(1) When any such offence as is described in section 175, section 178, section 179, section 180 or section 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is committed in the view or presence of any civil, Criminal or Revenue Court, the Court may cause the offender to be detained in custody and may at any time before the rising of the Court on the same day, take cognizance of the offence and, after giving the offender a reasonable opportunity of showing cause why he should not be punished under this section, sentence the offender to fine not exceeding two hundred rupees, and, in default of payment of fine, to simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, unless such fine be sooner paid.
(2)
In every such case the Court shall record the facts constituting the offence, with the statement (if any) made by the offender as well as the finding and sentence.
(3)
If the offence is under section 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), the record shall show the nature and stage of the judicial proceeding in which the Court interrupted or insulted was sitting, and the nature of the interruption or insult.

346. Procedure where Court considers that case should not be dealt with under section 345

(1) If the Court in any case considers that a person accused of any of the offences referred to in section 345 and committed in its view or presence should be imprisoned otherwise than in default of payment of fine, or that a fine exceeding two hundred rupees should be imposed upon him, or such Court is for any other reason of opinion that the case should not be disposed of under section 345 such Court, after recording the facts constituting the offence and the statement of the accused as hereinbefore provided, may forward the case to a magistrate having jurisdiction to try the same, and may require security to be given for the appearance of such person before such Magistrate, or if sufficient security is not given shall forward such person in custody to such Magistrate.
(2)
The Magistrate to whom any case is forwarded under this section shall proceed to deal with, as far as may be, as if it were instituted on a police report.
347. When Registrar or Sub-Registrar to be deemed a Civil Court

When the State Government so directs, any Registrar or any Sub-Registrar appointed under the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), shall be deemed to be a civil Court within the meaning of sections 345 and 346 .

348. Discharge of offender on submission of apology

When any Court has under section 345 adjudged an offender to punishment, or has under section 346 forwarded him to a Magistrate for trial, for refusing or omitting to do anything which he was lawfully required to do or for any international insult or interruption, the Court may, in its discretion, discharge the offender or remit the punishment on his submission to the order or requisition of such Court or on apology being made to its satisfaction.

349. Imprisonment or committal of person refusing to answer or produce document

If any witness or person called to produce a document or thing before a Criminal Court refuses to answer such question as are put to him or to produce any document or thing in his possession or power which the Court requires him to produce, and does not, after a reasonable opportunity has been given to him so to do, offer any reasonable excuse for such refusal such Court may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, sentence him to simple imprisonment or by warrant under the hand of the Presiding Magistrate or Judge commit him to the custody of an officer of the Court for any term not exceeding seven days, unless in the meantime, such person consents to be examined and to answer, or to produce the document or thing and in the event of his persisting in his refusal he may be dealt with according to the provisions of section 345 of section 346.

350. Summary procedure for punishment for non-attendance by a witness in obedience to summons

(1) If any witness being summoned to appear before a Criminal Court legally bound to appear at a certain place and time in obedience to the summons and without just excuse neglects or refuses to attend at that place or time or departs from the place where he has to attend before the time at which it is lawful for him to depart, and the Court before which the witness is to appear is satisfied that it is expedient in the interests of justice that such a witness should be tried summarily, the Court may take cognizance of the offence and after giving the offender an opportunity of showing cause why he should not be punished under this section, sentence him to fine not exceeding one hundred rupees.

(2) In every such case the Court shall follow, as nearly as may be practicable, the procedure prescribed for summary trials.

351. Appeals from convictions under sections 344, 345, 349 and 350

(1) Any person sentenced by any Court other than a High Court under section 344, section 345, section 349 or section 350 may, notwithstanding anything contained in this Code appeal to the Court to which decrees or orders made in such Court are ordinarily appealable.
(2)
The provisions of Chapter XXIX shall, so far as they are applicable, apply to appeals under this section, and the Appellate Court may alter or reverse the finding, or reduce or reverse the sentence appealed against.
(3)
An appeal from such conviction by a Court of small causes shall lie to the Court of Session for the sessions division within which such Court is situate.
(4)
An appeal from such conviction by any Registrar of Sub-Registrar deemed to be a civil Court by virtue of a direction issued under section 347 shall lie to the Court of Session for the sessions division within which the office of such Registrar of Sub-Registrar is situate.
352. Certain Judges and Magistrates not to try certain offences when committed before themselves

Except as provided in sections 344, 345, 349 and 350, no Judge of a Criminal Court (other than a Judge of a High Court) or Magistrate shall try any person for any offence referred to in section 195, when such offence is committed before himself or in contempt of his authority, or is brought under his notice as such judge or magistrate in the course of a judicial proceeding.

Devider

Chapter XXVII

The Judgment

353. Judgment

(1) The judgment in every trial in any Criminal Court of original jurisdiction shall be pronounced in open Court by the presiding officer immediately after the termination of the trial or at some subsequent time of which notice shall be given to the parties or their pleaders,—
(a)by delivering the whole of the judgment; or
(b)by reading out the whole of the judgment: or
(c)by reading out the operative part of the judgment and explaining the substance of the judgment in a language which is understood by the accused or his pleader.
(2) Where the judgment is delivered under clause (a) of sub-section (1), the presiding officer shall cause it to be taken down in short-hand, sign the transcript and every page thereof as soon as it is made ready, and write on it the date of the delivery of the judgment in open Court.
(3) Where the judgment or the operative part thereof is read out under clause (b) or clause (c) of sub-section (1), as the case may be, it shall be dated and signed by the presiding officer in open Court and if it is not written with his own hand, every page of the judgment shall be signed by him.
(4) Where the judgment is pronounced in the manner specified in clause (c) of sub­-section (1), the whole judgment or a copy thereof shall be immediately made available for the perusal of the parties or their pleaders free of cost.
(5) If the accused is in custody, he shall be brought up to hear the judgment pronounced.
(6) If the accused is not in custody, he shall be required by the Court to attend to hear the judgment pronounced, except where his personal attendance during the trial has been dispensed with and the sentence is one of fine only or he is acquitted:
Provided that, where there are more accused than one, and one or more of them do not attend the Court on the date on which the judgment is to be pronounced, the presiding officer may, in order to avoid undue delay in the disposal of the case, pronounce the judgment notwithstanding their absence.
(7) No judgment delivered by any Criminal Court shall be deemed to be invalid by reason only of the absence of any party or his pleader on the day or from the place notified for the delivery thereof, or of any omission to serve, or defect in serving, on the parties or their pleaders, or any of them, the notice of such day and place.
(8) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit in any way the extent of the provisions of section 465.

354. Language and contents of judgment

(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided by this Code, every judgment referred to in section 353,—
(a)shall be written in the language of the Court;
(b)shall contain the point or points for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for the decision;
(c)shall specify the offence (if any) of which, and the section of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or other law under which, the accused is convicted and the punishment to which he is sentenced;
(d)if it be a judgment of acquittal, shall state the offence of which the accused is acquitted and direct that he be set at liberty.
(2) When the conviction is under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) and it is doubtful under which of two sections, or under which of two parts of the same section, of that Code the offence falls, the Court shall distinctly express the same, and pass judgment in the alternative.
(3) When the conviction is for an offence punishable with dealt or, in the alternative, with imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term of years, the judgment shall state the reasons for the sentence awarded, and, in the case of sentence of death, the special reasons for such sentence.
(4) When the conviction is for an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term of one year of more, but the Court imposes a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than three months, it shall record its reasons for awarding such sentence, unless the sentence is one of imprisonment till the rising of the Court or unless the ease was tried summarily under the provisions of this Code.
(5) When any person is sentenced to death, the sentence shall direct that he be hanged by the neck till he is dead.
(6) Every order under section 117 or sub-section (2) of section 138 and every final order made under section 125, section 145 or section 147 shall contain the point or points for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for the decision.

355. Metropolitan Magistrate’s Judgment

Instead of recording a judgment in the manner hereinbefore provided, a Metropolitan Magistrate shall record the following particulars, namely:—
(a)the serial number of the case;
(b)the date of the commission of the offence;
(c)the name of the complainant (if any);
(d)the name of the accused person, and his parentage and residence;
(e)the offence complained of or proved;
(f)the plea of the accused and his examination (if any);
(g)the final order;
(h)the date of such order;
(i)in all cases in which an appeal lies from the final order either under section 373 or under sub-section (3) of section 374, a brief statement of the reasons for the decision.

356. Order for notifying address of previously convicted offender

(1) When any person, having been convicted by a Court in India of an offence punishable under section 215, section 489A section 489B, section 489C or section 489D or section 506 (in so far as it relates to criminal intimidation punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or with fine or with both) of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or of any offence punishable under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII of that Code, with imprisonment for a term of three years or upwards, is again convicted of any offence punishable under any of those sections or Chapters with imprisonment for a term of three years or upwards by any Court other than that of a Magistrate of the second class, such Court may, if it thinks fit, at the time of passing a sentence of imprisonment on such person, also order that his residence and any change of, or absence from, such residence after release be notified as hereinafter provided for a term not exceeding five years from the date of the expiration of such sentence.
(2)
The provisions of sub-section (1) with reference to the offences named therein, apply also to criminal conspiracies to commit such offences and to the abetment of such offences and attempts to commit them.
(3)
If such conviction is set aside on appeal or otherwise such order shall become void.
(4)
An order under this section may also be made by an Appellate Court or by the High Court or Court of Session when exercising its powers of revision.
(5)
The State Government may, by notification, make rules to carry out the provisions of this section relating to the notification of residence or change of or absence from, residence by released convicts.
(6)
Such rules may provide for punishment for the breach thereof and any person charged with a breach of any such rule may be tried by a Magistrate of competent jurisdiction in the district in which the place last notified by him as his place of residence is situated.

357. Order to pay compensation

(1) When a Court imposes a sentence of fine or a sentence (including a sentence of death) of which fine forms a part, the Court may, when passing judgment order the whole or any part of the fine recovered to be applied-
(a)in defraying the expenses properly incurred in the prosecution;
(b)in the payment to any person of compensation for any loss or injury caused by the offence, when compensation is, in the opinion of the Court, recoverable by such person in a Civil Court;
(c)when any person is convicted of any offence for having caused the death of another person or of having abetted the commission of such an offence, in paying compensation to the persons who are, under the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855 (13 of 1855), entitled to recover damages from the person sentenced for the loss resulting to them from such death;
(d)when any person is convicted of any offence which includes theft, criminal misappropriation, criminal breach of trust, or cheating, or of having dishonestly received or retained, or of having voluntarily assisted in disposing of, stolen property knowing or having reason to believe the same to be stolen in compensating any bona fide purchaser of such property for the loss of the same if such property is restored to the possession of the person entitled thereto.
(2)
If the fine is imposed in a case which is subject to appeal, no such payment shall be made before the period allowed for presenting the appeal has elapsed, or if an appeal be presented, before the decision of the appeal.
(3)
When a Court imposes a sentence, of which fine does not form a part, the Court may, when passing judgment order the accused person to pay, by way of compensation such amount as may be specified in the order to the person who has suffered any loss or injury by reason of the act for which the accused person has been so sentenced.
(4)
An order under this section may also be made by an Appellate Court or by the High Court or Court of Session when exercising its powers of revision.
(5)
At the time of awarding compensation in any subsequent civil suit relating to the same matter, the Court shall take into account any sum paid or recovered as compensation under this section.

357A. Victim compensation scheme-

(1) Every State Government in co-ordination with the Central Government shall prepare a scheme for providing funds for the purpose of compensation to the victim or his dependents who have suffered loss or injury as a result of the crime and who require rehabilitation.
(2)
Whenever a recommendation is made by the Court for compensation, the District Legal Service Authority or the State Legal Service Authority, as the case may be, shall decide the quantum of compensation to be awarded under the scheme referred to in sub-section (1).
(3)
If the trial Court, at the conclusion of the trial, is satisfied, that the compensation awarded under section 357 is not adequate for such rehabilitation, or where the cases end in acquittal or discharge and the victim has to be rehabilitated, it may make recommendation for compensation.
(4)
Where the offender is not traced or identified, but the victim is identified, and where no trial takes place, the victim or his dependents may make an application to the State or the District Legal Services Authority for award of compensation.
(5)
On receipt of such recommendations or on the application under sub-section (4), the State or the District Legal Services Authority shall, after due enquiry-award adequate compensation by completing the enquiry within two months.
(6)
The State or the District Legal Services Authority, as the case may be, to alleviate the suffering of the victim, may order for immediate first-aid facility or medical benefits to be made available free of cost on the certificate of the police officer not below the rank of the officer in charge of the police station or a Magistrate of the area concerned, or any other interim relief as the appropriate authority deems fit

357B. Compensation to be in addition to fine under section 326A or section 376D or Indian Penal Code

The compensation payable by the State Government under section 357A shall be in addition to the payment of fine to the victim under section 326A or section 376D of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

357C. Treatment of victims

All hospitals, public or private, whether run by the Central Government, the State Government, local bodies or any other person, shall immediately, provide the first-aid or medical treatment, free of cost, to the victims of any offence covered under section 326A, 376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and shall immediately inform the police of such incident.

358. Compensation to persons groundlessly arrested

(1) Whenever any person causes a police officer to arrest another person, if it appears to the Magistrate by whom the case is heard that there was no sufficient ground of causing such arrest, the Magistrate may award such compensation, not exceeding one thousand rupees, to be paid by the person so causing the arrest to the person so arrested, for his loss of time and expenses in the matter, as the Magistrate thinks fit.
(2)
In such cases, if more persons than one are arrested, the Magistrate may, in like manner, award to each of them such compensation, not exceeding one hundred rupees, as such Magistrate thinks fit.

(3) All compensation awarded under this section may be recovered as if it were a fine, and, if it cannot be so recovered, the person by whom it is payable shall be sentenced to simple imprisonment for such term not exceeding thirty days as the Magistrate directs, unless such sum is sooner paid.

359. Order to pay costs in non-cognizable cases

(1) Whenever any complaint of a non-cognizable offence is made to a Court, the Court, if it convicts the accused, may, in addition to the penalty imposed upon him, order him to pay to the complainant, in whole or in pan, the cost incurred by him in the prosecution, and may further order that in default of payment, the accused shall suffer simple imprisonment for a period not exceeding thirty days and such costs may include any expenses incurred in respect of process-fees witnesses and pleader’s fees which the Court may consider reasonable.

(2) An order under this section may also be made by an Appellate Court or by the High Court or Court of Session when exercising its powers of revision.

360. Order to release on probation of good conduct or after admonition

(1) When any person not under twenty-one years of age is convicted of an offence punishable with fine only or with imprisonment for a term of seven yean, or less, or when any person under twenty-one years of age or any woman is convicted of an offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for life, and no previous conviction is proved against the offender, if it appears to the Court before which he is convicted, regard being had to the age, character or antecedents of the offender, and to the circumstances in which the offence was committed, that it is expedient that the offender should be released on probation of good conduct, the Court may, instead of sentencing him at once to any punishment, direct that he be released on his entering into a bond, with or without sureties, to appear and receive sentence when called upon during such period (not exceeding three years) as the Court may direct and in the meantime to keep the peace and be of good behaviour:

Provided that where any first offender is convicted by a Magistrate of the second class not specially empowered by the High Court, and the Magistrate is of opinion that the powers conferred by this section should be exercised, he shall record his opinion to that effect, and submit the proceedings to a Magistrate of the first class forwarding the accused to or taking bail for his appearance before, such Magistrate, who shall dispose of the case in the manner provided by sub-section (2).
(2) Where proceedings are submitted to a Magistrate of the first class as provided by sub-section (1), such Magistrate may thereupon pass such sentence or make such order as he might have passed or made if the case had originally been heard by him, and, if he thinks further inquiry or additional evidence on any point to be necessary, he may make such inquiry or take such evidence himself or direct such inquiry or evidence to be made or taken.
(3) In any case in which a person is convicted of theft, theft in a building, dishonest in is appropriation, cheating or any offence under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) punishable with not more than two years’ imprisonment or any offence punishable with fine only and no previous conviction is proved against him, the Court before which he is so convicted may, if it thinks fit, having regard to the age, character, antecedents or physical or mental condition of the offender and to the trivial nature of the offence or any extenuating circumstances under which the offence was committed, instead of sentencing him to any punishment, release him after due admonition.
(4) An order under this section may be made by any Appellate Court or by the High Court or Court of Session when exercising its powers of revision.
(5) When an order has been made under this section in respect of any offender, the High Court or Court of Session may, on appeal when there is a right of appeal to such Court, or when exercising its powers of revision, set aside such order, and in lieu thereof pass sentence on such offender according to law:

Provided that the High Court or Court of Session shall not under this sub-section inflict a greater punishment than might have been inflicted by the Court by which the offender was convicted.
(6) The provisions of sections 121, 124 and 373 shall, so far as may be apply in the case of sureties offered in pursuance of the provisions of this section.
(7) The Court, before directing the release of an offender under sub-section (1) shall be satisfied that an offender or his surety (if any) has a fixed place of abode or regular occupation in the place for which the Court acts or in which the offender is likely to live during the period named for the observance of the conditions.
(8) If the Court which convicted the offender, or a Court which could have dealt with the offender in respect of his original offence, is satisfied that the offender has failed to observe any of the conditions of his recognizance, it may issue a warrant for his apprehension.
(9) An offender, when apprehended on any such warrant, shall be brought forthwith before the Court issuing the warrant, and such Court may either remand him in custody until the case is heard or admit him to bail with a sufficient surety conditioned on his appearing for sentence and such Court may after hearing the case, pass sentence.
(10)
Nothing in this section shall affect the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 (20 of 1958), or the Children Act, 1960 (60 of 1960), or any other law for the time being in force for the treatment, training or rehabilitation of youthful offenders.

361. Special reasons to be recorded in certain cases

Where in any case the Court could have dealt with—
(a)an accused person under section 360 or under the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 (20 of 1958), or
(b)a youthful offender under the Children Act, 1960 (60 of 1960), or any other law for the time being in force for the treatment, training or rehabilitation of youthful offenders,
but has not done so, it shall record in its judgment the special reasons for not having done so.

362. Court not to alter judgment

Save as otherwise provided by this Code or by any other law for the time being in force, no Court when it has signed its judgment or final order disposing of a case, shall alter or review the same except to correct a clerical or arithmetical error.

363. Copy of judgment to be given to the accused and other persons

(1) When the accused is sentenced to imprisonment, a copy of the judgment shall, immediately after the pronouncement of the judgment, be given to him free of cost.
(2) On the application of the accused, a certified copy of the judgment, or when he so desires, a translation is his own language if practicable or in the language of the Court, shall be given to him without delay, and such copy shall, in every case where the judgment is appealable by the accused be given free of cost:
Provided that where a sentence of death is passed or confirmed by the High Court, a certified copy of the judgment shall be immediately given to the accused free of cost whether or not he applies for the same.
(3) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply in relation to an order under section 117 as they apply in relation to a judgment which is appealable by the accused.
(4) When the accused is sentenced to death by any Court and an appeal lies from such judgment as of right, the Court shall inform him of the period within which, if he wishes to appeal his appeal should be preferred.
(5) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2) any person affected by a judgment or order passed by a criminal Court shall, on an application made in this behalf and on payment of the prescribed charges, be given a copy of such judgment or order of any deposition or other part of the record:
Provided that the Court may, if it thinks fit for some special reason, give it to him free of cost.
(6) The High Court may, by rules provide for the grant of copies of any judgment or order of a Criminal Court to any person who is not affected by a judgment or order on payment, by such person, of such fees, and subject to such conditions, as the High Court may, by such rules provide.

364. Judgment when to be translated

The original judgment shall be filed with the record of the proceedings and where the original is recorded in a language different from that of the Court and the accused so requires, a translation thereof into the language of the Court shall be added to such record.
365. Court of Session to send copy of finding and sentence to District Magistrate

In cases tried by the Court of Session or a Chief Judicial Magistrate, the Court or such Magistrate as the case may be, shall forward a copy of its or his finding and sentence (if any) to the District Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction the trial was held.

Devider

Chapter XXVIII

Submission of Death Sentences for Confirmation

366. Sentence of death to be submitted by Court of Session for confirmation

(1) When the Court of Session passes a sentence of death, the proceedings shall be submitted to the High Court, and the sentence shall not be executed unless it is confirmed by the High Court.
(2) The Court passing the sentence shall commit the convicted person to jail custody under a warrant.

367. Power to direct further inquiry to be made or additional evidence to be taken

(1) If, when such proceedings are submitted, the High Court thinks that a further inquiry should be made into or additional evidence taken upon, any point bearing upon the guilt or innocence of the convicted person, it may make such inquiry or take such evidence itself, or direct it to be made or taken by the Court of Session.
(2) Unless the High Court otherwise directs, the presence of the convicted person may be dispensed with when such inquiry is made or such evidence is taken.
(3) When the inquiry or evidence (if any) is not made or taken by the High Court, the result of such inquiry or evidence shall be certified to such Court.

368. Power of High Court to confirm sentence or annul conviction

In any case submitted under section 366, the High Court—
(a)may confirm the sentence, or pass any other sentence warranted by law, or
(b)may annul the conviction, and convict the accused of any offence of which the Court of Session might have convicted him, or order a new trial on the same or an amended charge, or
(c)may acquit the accused person:
Provided that no order of confirmation shall be made under this section until the period allowed for preferring an appeal has expired, or, if an appeal is presented within such period, until such appeal is disposed of.

369. Confirmation or new sentence to be signed by two Judges

In every case so submitted, the confirmation of the sentence, or any new sentence or order passed by the High Court, shall when such Court consists of two or more Judges, be made, passed and signed by at least two of them.

370. Procedure in case of difference of opinion

Where any such case is heard before a Bench of Judges and such Judges are equally divided in opinion, the case shall be decided in the manner provided by section 392.

371. Procedure in cases submitted to High Court for confirmation

In cases submitted by the Court of Session to the High Court for the confirmation of a sentence of death, the proper officer of the High Court shall, without delay, after the order of confirmation or other order has been made by the High Court, send a copy of the order under the seal of the High Court and attested with his official signature, to the Court of Session

Devider

Chapter XXIX

Appeals

372. No appeal to lie unless otherwise provided

No appeal shall lie from any judgment or order of a Criminal Court except as provided for by this Code or by any other law for the time being in force.

Provided that the Victim shall have a right to prefer an appeal against any order passed by the Court acquitting the accused or convicting for a lesser offence or imposing inadequate compensation, and such appeal shall lie to the Court to which an appeal ordinarily lies against the order of conviction of such Court.

373. Appeal from orders requiring security or refusal to accept or rejecting surety for keeping peace or good behaviour

Any person,—
(i)who has been ordered under section 117 to give security for keeping the peace or for good behaviour, or
(ii)who is aggrieved by any order refusing to accept or rejecting a surety under section 121,may appeal against such order to the Court of Session:

Provided that nothing in this section, shall apply to persons the proceedings against whom are laid before a Sessions Judge in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (2) or sub-section (4) of section 122.

374. Appeals from convictions

(1)Any person convicted on a trial held by a High Court in its extraordinary original criminal jurisdiction may appeal to the Supreme Court.
(2) Any person convicted on a trial held by a Sessions Judge or an Additional Sessions Judge or on a trial held by any other Court in which a sentence of imprisonment for more than seven years has been passed against him or against any other person convicted at the same trial; may appeal to the High Court.
(3) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2), any person,-
(a)convicted on a trial held by a Metropolitan Magistrate or Assistant Sessions Judge or Magistrate of the first class or of the second class, or
(b)sentenced under section 325, or
(c)in respect of whom an order has been made or a sentence has been passed under section 360 by any Magistrate,
may appeal to the Court of Session.

375. No appeal in certain cases when accused pleads guilty

Notwithstanding anything contained in section 374, where an accused person has pleaded guilty and has been convicted on such plea, there shall be no appeal.—
(a)if the conviction is by a High Court; or
(b)if the conviction is by a Court of Session, Metropolitan Magistrate or Magistrate of the first or second class, except as to the extent or legality of the sentence.

376. No appeal in petty cases

Notwithstanding anything contained in section 374, there shall be no appeal by a convicted person in any of the following cases, namely:—
(a)where a High Court passes only a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or of fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, or of both such imprisonment and fine;
(b)where a Court of Session or a Metropolitan Magistrate passes only a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or of fine not exceeding two hundred rupees, or of both such imprisonment and fine;
(c)where a Magistrate of the first class passes only a sentence of fine not exceeding one hundred rupees; or
(d)where, in a case tried summarily, a Magistrate empowered to act under section 260 passes only a sentence of fine not exceeding two hundred rupees:
Provided that an appeal may be brought against any such sentence if any other punishment is combined with it, but such sentence shall not be appealable merely on the ground—
(i)that the person convicted is ordered to furnish security to keep the peace; or
(ii)that a direction for imprisonment in default of payment of fine is included in the sentence; or
(iii)that more than one sentence of fine is passed in the case, if the total amount of fine imposed does not exceed the amount hereinbefore specified in respect of the case.

377. Appeal by the State Government against sentence

(1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2), the State Government may, in any case of conviction on a trial held by any Court other than a High Court, direct the Public Prosecutor to present an appeal against the sentence on the ground of its inadequacy
(a)to the Court of session, if the sentence is passed by the Magistrate; and
(b)to the High Court, if the sentence is passed by any other Court.
(2) If such conviction is in a case in which the offence has been investigated by the Delhi Special Police Establishment, constituted under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 (25 of 1946), or by any other agency empowered to make investigation into an offence under any Central Act other than this Code, the Central Government may also direct the Public Prosecutor to present an appeal against the sentence on the ground of its inadequacy–
(a)to the Court of session, if the sentence is passed by the Magistrate; and
(b)to the High Court, if the sentence is passed by any other Court.
(3) When an appeal has been filed against the sentence on the ground of its inadequacy, the Court of Session or, as the case may be, the High Court shall not enhance the sentence except after giving to the accused a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against such enhancement and while showing cause, the accused may plead for his acquittal or for the reduction of the sentence.

378. Appeal in case of acquittal

(1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2) and subject to the provisions of sub-sections (3) and (5),

(a)the District Magistrate may, in any case, direct the Public Prosecutor to present an appeal to the Court of Session from an order of acquittal passed by a Magistrate in respect of a cognizable and non-bailable offence;

(b)the State Government may, in any case, direct the Public Prosecutor to present an appeal to the High Court from an original or appellate order of an acquittal passed by any Court other than a High Court not being an order under clause (a) or an order of acquittal passed by the Court of Session in revision.”;.

(2) If such an order of acquittal is passed in any case in which the offence has been investigated by the Delhi Special Police Establishment constituted under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 (25 of 1946) or by any other agency empowered to make investigation into an offence under any Central Act other than this Code, the Central Government may, subject to the provisions of sub-section (3), also direct the Public Prosecutor to present an appeal–

(a)to the Court of Session, from an order of acquittal passed by a Magistrate in respect of a cognizable and non-bailable offence;

(b)to the High Court from an original or appellate order of an acquittal passed by any Court other than a High Court not being an order under clause (a) or an order of acquittal passed by the Court of Session in revision.

(3) No appeal under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be entertained except with the leave of the High Court.

(4) If such an order of acquittal is passed in any case instituted upon complaint and the High Court, on an application made to it by the complainant in this behalf, grants special leave to appeal from the order of acquittal, the complainant may present such an appeal to the High Court.

(5) No application under sub-section (4) for the grant of special leave to appeal from an order of acquittal shall be entertained by the High Court after the expiry of six months, where the complainant is a public servant, and sixty days in every other case, computed from the date of that order of acquittal.

(6) If, in any case, the application under sub-section (4) for the grant of special leave to appeal from an order of acquittal is refused, no appeal from that order of acquittal shall lie under sub-section (1) or under sub-section (2).

Note:Section 378 has no application in case of Appeal against acquittal arising out of NI Act

379. Appeal against conviction by High Court in certain cases

Where the High Court has, on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and convicted him and sentenced him to death or to imprisonment for life or to imprisonment for a term of ten years or more, he may appeal to the Supreme Court.

380. Special right of appeal in certain cases

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, when more persons than one are convicted in one trial, and an appealable judgment of order has been passed in respect of any of such person, all or any of the persons convicted at such trial shall have a right of appeal.


381. Appeal to Court of Session how heard

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub­section (2), an appeal to the Court of Session or Sessions Judge shall be heard by the Sessions Judge or by an Additional Sessions Judge:
Provided that an appeal against a conviction on a trial held by a Magistrate of the second class may be heard and disposed of by an Assistant Sessions Judge or a Chief Judicial Magistrate.

(2) An Additional Sessions Judge, Assistant Sessions Judge or a Chief Judicial Magistrate shall hear only such appeals as the Sessions Judge of the division may, by general or special order, make over to him or as the High Court may, by special order, direct him to hear.

382. Petition of appeal

Every appeal shall be made in the form of a petition in writing presented by the appellant of his pleader, and every such petition shall (unless the Court to which it is presented otherwise directs) be accompanied by a copy of the judgment or order appealed against.

383. Procedure when appellant in jail

If the appellant is in jail, he may present his petition of appeal and the copies accompanying the same to the officer in charge of the jail, who shall thereupon forward such petition and copies to the proper Appellate Court.

384. Summary dismissal of appeal

(1) If upon examining the petition of appeal and copy of the judgment received under section 382 or section 383, the Appellate Court considers that there is no sufficient ground for interfering, it may dismiss the appeal summarily:
Provided that-
(a)no appeal presented under section 382 shall be dismissed unless the appellant or his pleader has had a reasonable opportunity of being heard in support of the same;
(b)no appeal presented under section 383 shall be dismissed except after giving the appellant a reasonable opportunity of being heard in support of the same, unless the Appellate Court considers that the appeal is frivolous or that the production of the accused in custody before the Court would involve such inconvenience as would be disproportionate in the circumstances of the case;
(c)no appeal presented under section 383 shall be dismissed summarily until the period allowed for preferring such appeal has expired.

(2) Before dismissing an appeal under this section, the Court may call for the record of the case.
(3) Where the Appellate Court dismissing an appeal under this section is a Court of Session or of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, it shall record its reasons for doing so.
(4) Where an appeal presented under section 383 has been dismissed summarily under this section and the Appellate Court finds that another petition of appeal duly presented under section 382 on behalf of the same appellant has not been considered by it, that Court may, notwithstanding anything contained in section 393, if satisfied that it is necessary in the interests of justice so to do, hear and dispose of such appeal in accordance with law.

385. Procedure for hearing appeals not dismissed summarily

(1) If the Appellate Court does not dismiss the appeal summarily, it shall cause notice of the time and place at which such appeal will be heard to be given-
(i)to the appellant or his pleader;
(ii)to such officer as the State Government may appoint in this behalf;
(iii)if the appeal is from a judgment of conviction in a case instituted upon complaint to the complainant;
(iv)if the appeal is under section 377 or section 378, to the accused, and shall also furnish such officer, complainant and accused with a copy of the grounds of appeal.
(2)The Appellate Court shall then send for the record or the case, if such record is not already available in that Court and hear the parties:
Provided that if the appeal is only as to the extent or the legality of the sentence, the Court may dispose of the appeal without sending for the record.
(3)Where the only ground for appeal from a conviction is the alleged severity of the sentence, the appellant shall not except with the leave of the Court urge or be heard in support of any other ground.

386. Powers of the Appellate Court

After perusing such record and hearing the appellant or his pleader, if he appears, and the Public Prosecutor, if he appears, and in case of an appeal under section 377 or section 378, the accused, if he appears, the Appellate Court may, if it considers that there is no sufficient ground for interfering, dismiss the appeal, or may—

(a)in an appeal from an order of acquittal, reverse such order and direct that further inquiry be made, or that the accused be re-tried or committed for trial, as the case may be, or find him guilty and pass sentence on him according to law;

(b) in an appeal from a conviction—
(i)reverse the finding and sentence and acquit or discharge the accused, or order him to be re-tried by a Court of competent jurisdiction subordinate to such Appellate Court or committed for trial, or
(ii)alter the finding, maintaining the sentence, or
(iii)with or without altering the finding, alter the nature or the extent, or the nature and extent, of the sentence, but not so as to enhance the same;
(c) in an appeal for enhancement of sentence—
(i)reverse the finding and sentence and acquit or discharge the accused or order him to be re-tried by a Court competent to try the offence, or
(ii)alter the finding maintaining the sentence, or
(iii)with or without altering the finding, alter the nature or the extent, or the nature and extent, of the sentence, so as to enhance or reduce the same;
(d)in an appeal from any other order, alter or reverse such order;
(e)make any amendment or any consequential or incidental order that may be just or proper;

Provided that the sentence shall not be enhanced unless the accused has had an opportunity of showing cause against such enhancement:
Provided further that the Appellate Court shall not inflict greater punishment for the offence which in its opinion the accused has committed, than might have been inflicted for that offence by the Court passing the order or sentence under appeal.

387. Judgments of subordinate Appellate Court

The rules contained in Chapter XXVII as to the judgment of a Criminal Court of original jurisdiction shall apply, so far as may be practicable, to the judgment in appeal of a Court of Session or Chief Judicial Magistrate:

Provided that unless the Appellate Court otherwise directs, the accused shall not be brought up, or required to attend, to hear judgment delivered.

388. Order of High Court on appeal to be certified to lower Court

(1) Whenever a case is decided on appeal by the High Court under this Chapter, it shall certify its judgment or order to the Court by which the finding, sentence or order appealed against was recorded or passed and if such Court is that of a Judicial Magistrate other than the Chief Judicial Magistrate, the High Court’s judgment or order shall be sent through the Chief Judicial Magistrate; and if such Court is that of an Executive Magistrate, the High Court’s judgment or order shall be sent through the District Magistrate.
(2) The Court to which the High Court certifies its judgment or order shall thereupon make such orders as arc conformable to the judgment or order of the High Court; and, if necessary, the record shall be amended in accordance therewith.

389. Suspension of sentence pending the appeal; release of appellant on bail

(1) Pending any appeal by a convicted person, the Appellate Court may, for reasons to be recorded by it in writing, order that the execution of the sentence or order appealed against be suspended and, also, if he is in confinement, that he be released on bail, or on his own bond.
Provided that the Appellate Court shall, before releasing on bail or on his own bond a convicted person who is convicted of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term of not less than ten years, shall give opportunity to the Public Prosecutor for showing cause in writing against such release:

Provided further that in cases where a convicted person is released on bail it shall be open to the Public Prosecutor to file an application for the cancellation of the bail.

(2) The power conferred by this section on an Appellate Court may be exercised also by the High Court in the case of an appeal by convicted person to a Court subordinate thereto.
(3) Where the convicted person satisfies the Court by which he is convicted that he intends to present an appeal, the Court shall,-
(i)where such person, being on bail, is sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or
(ii)where the offence of which such person has been convicted is a bailable one, and he is on bail,
order that the convicted person be released on bail unless there are special reasons for refusing bail, for such period as will afford sufficient time to present the appeal and obtain the orders of the Appellate Court under sub-section (1), and the sentence of imprisonment shall, so long as he is so released on bail, be deemed to be suspended.
(4) When the appellant is ultimately sentenced to imprisonment for a term or to imprisonment for life, the time during which he is so released shall be excluded in computing the term for which he is so sentenced.

390. Arrest of accused in appeal from acquittal

When an appeal is presented under section 378, the High Court may issue a warrant directing that the accused be arrested and brought before it or any subordinate Court, and the Court before which he is brought may commit him to prison pending the disposal of the appeal or admit him to bail.

391. Appellate Court may take further evidence or direct it to be taken

(1) In dealing with any appeal under this Chapter, the Appellate Court, if it thinks additional evidence to be necessary, shall record its reasons and may either take such evidence itself, or direct it to be taken by a Magistrate, or when the Appellate Court is a High Court, by a Court of Session or a Magistrate.
(2) When the additional evidence is taken by the Court of Session or the Magistrate, it or he shall certify such evidence to the Appellate Court, and such Court shall thereupon proceed to dispose of the appeal.
(3) The accused or his pleader shall have the right to be present when the additional evidence is taken.
(4) The taking of evidence under this section shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter XXIII, as if it were an inquiry.

392. Procedure where Judges of Court of appeal are equally divided

When an appeal under this Chapter is heard by a High Court before a Bench of Judges and they are divided in opinion, the appeal, with their opinions, shall be laid before another Judge of that Court, and that Judge, after such hearing as he thinks fit, shall deliver his opinion, and the judgment or order shall follow that opinion:
Provided that if one of the Judges constituting the Bench, or, where the appeal is laid before another Judge under this section, that Judge, so requires, the appeal shall be re-­heard and decided by a larger Bench of Judges.

393. Finality of judgments and orders on appeal

Judgments and orders passed by an Appellate Court upon an appeal shall be final, except in the case provided for in section 377, section 378, sub-section (4) of section 384 or Chapter XXX:
Provided that notwithstanding the final disposal of an appeal against conviction in any case, the Appellate Court may hear and dispose of, on the merits.
(a)an appeal against acquittal under section 378, arising out of the same case, or
(b)an appeal for the enhancement of sentence under section 377, arising out of the same case.

394. Abatement of appeals

(1) Every appeal under section 377 or section 378 shall finally abate on the death of the accused.
(2) Every other appeal under this Chapter (except an appeal from a sentence of fine) shall finally abate on the death of the appellant:
Provided that where the appeal is against a conviction and sentence of death or of imprisonment, and the appellant dies during the pendency of the appeal, any of his near relatives may, within thirty days of the death of the appellant, apply to the Appellate Court for leave to continue the appeal; and if leave is granted, the appeal shall not abate.
Explanation.—In this section, “near relative” means a parent, spouse, lineal descendant, brother or sister.

Devider

Chapter XXX

Reference and Revision

395. Reference to High Court

(1) Where any Court is satisfied that a case pending before it involves a question as to the validity of any Act, Ordinance or Regulation or of any provision contained in an Act, Ordinance or Regulation, the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, and is of opinion that such Act, Ordinance, Regulation or provision is invalid or inoperative, but has not been so declared by the High Court to which that Court is subordinate or by the Supreme Court, the Court shall state a case setting out its opinion and the reasons therefore, and refer the same for the decision of the High Court.
Explanation.- In this section, “Regulation” means any Regulation as defined in the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), or in the General Clauses Act of a State.
(2) A Court of Session or a Metropolitan Magistrate may, if it or he thinks fit in any case pending before it or him to which the provisions of sub-section (1) do not apply, refer for the decision of the High Court any question of law arising in the hearing of such case.
(3) Any Court making a reference to the High Court under sub-section (1) or sub­section (2) may, pending the decision of the High Court thereon, either commit the accused to jail or release him on bail to appear when called upon.

396. Disposal of case according to decision of High Court

(1) When a question has been so referred, the High Court shall pass such order thereon as it thinks fit, and shall cause a copy of such order to be sent to the Court by which the reference was made, which shall dispose of the case conformably to the said order.
(2) The High Court may direct by whom the costs of such reference shall be paid.

397. Calling for records to exercise powers of revision

(1) The High Court or any Sessions Judge may call for and examine the record of any proceeding before any inferior Criminal Court situate within its or his local jurisdiction for the purpose of satisfying itself or himself as to the correctness, legality or propriety of any finding. Sentence or order, recorded or passed, and as to the regularity of any proceedings of such inferior Court, and may, when calling for such record, direct that the execution of any sentence or order be suspended, and if the accused is in confinement, that he be released on bail or on his own bond pending the examination of the record.
Explanation.—All Magistrates, whether Executive or Judicial, and whether exercising original or appellate jurisdiction, shall be deemed to be inferior to the Sessions Judge for the purposes of this sub-section and of section 398.
(2) The powers of revision conferred by sub-section (1) shall not be exercised in relation to any interlocutory order passed in any appeal, inquiry, trial or other proceeding.
(3) If an application under this section has been made by any person either to the High Court or to the Sessions Judge, no further application by the same person shall be entertained by the other of them.

398. Power to order inquiry

On examining any record under section 397 or otherwise, the High Court or the Sessions Judge may direct the Chief Judicial Magistrate by himself or by any of the Magistrates subordinate to him to make, and the Chief Judicial Magistrate may himself make or direct any subordinate Magistrate to make, further inquiry into any complaint which has been dismissed under section 203 of sub-section (4) of section 204 or into the case of any person accused of an offence who has been discharged:
Provided that no Court shall make any direction under this section for inquiry into the case of any person who has been discharged unless such person has had an opportunity of showing cause why such direction should not be made.

399. Sessions Judge’s powers of revision

(1) In the case of any proceeding the record of which has been called for by himself the Sessions Judge may exercise all or any of the powers which may be exercised by the High Court under sub-section (1) of section 401.
(2) Where any proceeding by way of revision is commenced before a Sessions Judge under sub-section (1), the provisions of sub-sections (2), (3), (4) and (5) of section 401 shall, so far as may be, apply to such proceeding and references in the said subsections to the High Court shall be construed as references to the Sessions Judge.
(3) Where any application for revision is made by or on behalf of any person before the Sessions Judge, the decision of the Sessions Judge thereon in relation to such person shall be final and no further proceeding by way of revision at the instance of such person shall be entertained by the High Court or any other Court.

400. Power of Additional Sessions Judge

An Additional Sessions Judge shall have and may exercise all the powers of a Sessions Judge under this Chapter in respect of any case which may be transferred to him by or under any general or special order of the Sessions Judge.

401. High Court’s powers of revision

(1) In the case of any proceeding the record of which has been called for by itself or which otherwise comes to its knowledge, the High Court may, in its discretion, exercise any of the powers conferred on a Court of Appeal by sections 386, 389, 390 and 391 or on a Court of Session by section 307 and, when the Judges composing the Court of revision are equally divided in opinion, the case shall be disposed of in the manner provided by section 392.
(2) No order under this section shall be made to the prejudice of the accused or other person unless he has had an opportunity of being heard either personally or by pleader in his own defence.
(3) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise a High Court to convert a finding of acquittal into one of conviction.
(4) Where under this Code an appeal lies and no appeal is brought, no proceeding by way of revision shall be entertained at the instance of the party who could have appealed.
(5) Where under this Code an appeal lies but an application for revision has been made to the High Court by any person and the High Court is satisfied that such application was made under the erroneous belief that no appeal lies thereto and that it is necessary in the interests of justice so to do, the High Court may treat the application for revision as a petition of appeal and deal with the same accordingly.

402. Power of High Court to withdraw or transfer revision cases

(1) Whenever one or more persons convicted at the same trial makes or make application to a High Court for revision and any other person convicted at the same trial makes an application to the Sessions Judge for revision, the High Court shall decide, having regard to the general convenience of the parties and the importance of the question involved. Which of the two Courts should finally dispose of the applications for revision and when the High Court decides that all the application for revision should be disposed of by itself, the High Court shall direct that the applications for revision pending before the Sessions Judge be transferred to itself and where the High Court decides that it is not necessary for it to dispose of the applications for revision, it shall direct that the applications for revision made to it be transferred to the Sessions Judge.
(2) Whenever any application for revision is transferred to the High Court, that Court shall deal with the same as if it were an application duly made before itself.
(3) Whenever any application for revision is transferred to the Sessions Judge, that Judge shall deal with the same as if it were an application duly made before himself.
(4) Where an application for revision is transferred by the High Court to the Sessions Judge, no further application for revision shall lie to the High Court or to the any other Court at the instance of the person or persons whose applications for revision have been disposed of by the Sessions Judge.

403. Option of Court to hear parties

Save as otherwise expressly provided by this Code no party has any right to be heard either personally or by pleader before any Court exercising its powers of revision; but the Court may, if it thinks fit, when exercising such powers, hear any party either personally or by pleader.
404. Statement by Metropolitan Magistrate of grounds of his decision to be considered by High Court

When the record of any trial held by a Metropolitan Magistrate is called for by the High Court or Court of Session under section 397, the Magistrate may submit with the record a statement setting forth the grounds of his decision or order and any facts which he thinks material to the issue; and the Court shall consider such statement before overruling or setting aside the said decision or order.

405. High Court’s order to be certified to lower Court

When a case is revised under this Chapter by the High Court or a Sessions Judge, it or he shall, in the manner provided by section 388, certify its decision or order to the Court by which the finding sentence or order revised was recorded or passed, and the Court to which the decision or order is so certified shall thereupon make such orders as are conformable to the decision so certified; and, if necessary, the record shall be amended in accordance therewith.

Devider

Chapter XXXI –  Transfer of Criminal Cases [Sec 406 to 421]

Devider

Chapter XXXII

Execution, Suspension, Remission and Commutation of Sentences

A. — Death sentences

413. Execution of order passed under section 368

When in a case submitted to the High Court for the confirmation of a sentence of death, the Court of Session receives the order of confirmation or other order of the High Court thereon, it shall cause such order to be carried into effect by issuing a warrant or taking such other steps as may be necessary.

414. Execution of sentence of death passed by High Court

When a sentence of death is passed by the High Court in appeal or in revision, the Court of Session shall, on receiving the order of the High Court, cause the sentence to be carried into effect by issuing a warrant.

415. Postponement of execution of sentence of death in case of appeal to Supreme Court

(1)
Where a person is sentenced to death by the High Courtand an appeal from its judgment lies to the Supreme Court under sub-clause (a)or sub-clause (b) of clause (1) of Article 134 of the Constitution, the High Court shall order the execution of the sentence to be postponed until the period allowed for preferring such appeal has expired, or if an appeal is preferred within that period, until such appeal is disposed of.
(2)
Where a sentence of death is passed or confirmed by the High Court, and the person sentenced makes an application to the High Court for the grant of a certificate under Article 132 or under sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of Article134 of the Constitution, the High Court shall order the execution of the sentence to be postponed until such application is disposed of by the High Court, or if a certificate is granted on such application until the period allowed for preferring an appeal to the Supreme Court on such certificate has expired.
(3)
Where a sentence of death is passed or confirmed by the High Court, and the High Court is satisfied that the person sentenced intends to present a petition to the Supreme Court for the grant of special leave to appeal under Article 136of the Constitution, the High Court shall order the execution of the sentence to be postponed for such period as it considers sufficient to enable him to present such petition.
416. Postponement of capital sentence on pregnant woman

If a woman sentenced to death is found to be pregnant, the High Court shall commute the sentence to imprisonment for life.

B. — Imprisonment

417. Power to appoint place of imprisonment

(1) Except when otherwise provided by any law for the time being in force, the State Government may direct in what place any person liable to be imprisoned or committed to custody under this Code shall be confined.
(2) If any person liable to be imprisoned or committed to custody under this Code is in confinement in a civil jail the Court of Magistrate ordering the imprisonment or committal may direct that the person be removed to a criminal jail.
(3) When a person is removed to a criminal jail under sub-section (2), he shall, on being released therefrom, be sent back to the civil jail, unless either—
(a)three years have elapsed since he was removed to the criminal jail, in which case he shall be deemed to have been released from the civil jail under section 58 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or section 23 of the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 (5 of 1920), as the case may be; or
(b)the Court which ordered his imprisonment in the civil jail has certified to the officer in charge of the criminal jail that he is entitled to be released under section 58 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or under section 23 of the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 (5 of 1920), as the case may be.

418. Execution of sentence of imprisonment

(1)
Where the accused is sentenced to imprisonment for life or to imprisonment for a term in cases other than those provided for by section 413, the Court passing the sentence shall forthwith forward a warrant to the jail or other place in which he is, or is to be, confined, and, unless the accused is already confined in such jail or other place, shall forward him to such jail or other place, with the warrant:
Provided that where the accused is sentenced to imprisonment till the rising of the Court, it shall not be necessary to prepare or forward a warrant to a jail and the accused may be confined in such place as the Court may direct.
(2)
Where the accused is not present in Court when he is sentenced to such imprisonment as is mentioned in sub-section (1), the Court shall issue a warrant for his arrest for the purpose of forwarding him to the jail or other place in which he is to be confined; and in such case, the sentence shall commence on the date of his arrest.

419. Direction of warrant for execution

Every warrant for the execution of a sentence of imprisonment shall be directed to the officer in charge of the jail or other place in which the prisoner is, or is to be, confined.

420. Warrant with whom to be lodged

When the prisoner is to be confined in a jail, the warrant shall be lodged with the jailor.

C. — Levy of fine

421. Warrant for levy of fine

(1) When an offender has been sentenced to pay a fine the Court passing the sentence may take action for the recovery of the fine in either or both of the following ways, that is to say, it may—
(a)issue a warrant for the levy of the amount by attachment and sale of any moveable property belonging to the offender;
(b)issue a warrant to the collector of the district, authorising him to realise the amount as arrears of land revenue from the movable or immovable property, or both of the defaulter:
Provided that, if the sentence directs that in default of payment of the fine, the offender shall be imprisoned, and if such offender has undergone the whole of such imprisonment in default, no Court shall issue such warrant unless, for special reasons to be recorded in writing, it considers it necessary so to do, or unless it has made an order for the payment of expenses or compensation out of the fine under section 357.
(2)
The Stale Government may make rules regulating the manner in which warrants under clause (a) of sub-section (1) are to be executed, and for the summary determination of any claims made by any person other than the offender in respect of any properly attached in execution of such warrant.
(3)
Where the Court issues a warrant to the Collector under clause (b) of sub-section (1), the Collector shall realise the amount in accordance with the law relating to recovery of arrears of land revenue, as if such warrant were a certificate issued under such law:
Provided that no such warrant shall be executed by the arrest or detention in prison of the offender.

422. Effect of such warrant

A warrant issued under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 421 by any Court may be executed within the local jurisdiction of such Court, and it shall authorise the attachment and sale of any such property outside such jurisdiction, when it is endorsed by the District Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction such property is found.

423. Warrant for levy of fine issued by a Court in any territory to which this Code does not extend

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code or in any other law for the time being in force, when an offender has been sentenced to pay a fine by a criminal Court in any territory to which this Code does not extend and the Court passing the sentence issues a warrant to the Collector of a district in the territories to which this Code extends, authorising him to realise the amount as if it were an arrear of land revenue, such warrant shall be deemed to be a warrant issued under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 421 by a Court in the territories to which this Code extends, and the provisions of sub-section (3) of the said section as to the execution of such warrant shall apply accordingly.

424. Suspension of execution of sentence of imprisonment

(1) When an offender has been sentenced to fine only and to imprisonment in default of payment of the fine and the fine is not paid forthwith, the Court may—
(a)order that the fine shall be payable either in fully on or before a date not more than thirty days from the date of the order, or in two or three installments, of which the first shall be payable on or before a date not more than thirty days from the date of the order and the other or others at an interval or at intervals, as the case may be, of not more than thirty days;
(b)suspend the execution of the sentence of imprisonment and release the offender, on the execution by the offender of a bond, with or without sureties, as the Court thinks fit, conditioned for his appearance before the Court on the date or dates on or before which payment of the fine or the installment thereof, as the case may be, is to be made; and if the amount of the fine or of any installment, as the case may be, is not realised on or before the latest date on which it is payable under the order, the Court may direct the sentence of imprisonment to be carried into execution at once.
(2)
The provisions of sub-section (1) shall be applicable also in any case in which an order for the payment of money has been made on non-recovery of which imprisonment may be awarded and the money is not paid forthwith; and, if the person against whom the order has been made, on being required to enter into a bond such as is referred to in that sub-section, fails to do so, the Court may at once pass sentence of imprisonment.

D. — General provisions regarding execution

425. Who may issue warrant

Every warrant for the execution of a sentence may be issued either by the Judge or Magistrate who passed the sentence, or by his successor-in-officer.

426. Sentence on escaped convict when to take effect

(1) When a sentence of death, imprisonment for life or fine is passed under this Code on an escaped convict, such sentence shall, subject to the provisions hereinbefore contained, take effect immediately.
(2)
When a sentence of imprisonment for a term is passed under this Code on an escaped convict,—
(a)if such sentence is severer in kind than the sentence which such convict was undergoing when he escaped, the new sentence shall take effect immediately;
(b)if such sentence is not severer in kind than the sentence which such convict was undergoing when he escaped, the new sentence shall take effect after he has suffered imprisonment for a further period equal to that which, at the time of his escape, remained unexpired of his former sentence.
(3)
For the purposes of sub-section (2), a sentence of rigorous imprisonment shall be deemed to be severer in kind than a sentence of simple imprisonment.

427. Sentence on offender already sentenced for another offence

(1) When a person already undergoing a sentence of imprisonment is sentenced on a subsequent conviction to imprisonment or imprisonment for life, such imprisonment or imprisonment for life shall commence at the expiration of the imprisonment to which he has been previously sentenced, unless the Court directs that the subsequent sentence shall run concurrently with such previous sentence:
Provided that where a person who has been sentenced to imprisonment by an order under section 122 in default of furnishing security is, whilst undergoing such sentence, sentenced to imprisonment for an offence committed prior to the making of such order, the latter sentence shall commence immediately.

(2) When a person already undergoing a sentence of imprisonment for life is sentenced on a subsequent conviction to imprisonment for a term or imprisonment for life, the subsequent sentence shall run concurrently with such previous sentence.

428. Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set off against the sentence of imprisonment

Where an accused person has, on conviction, been sentenced to imprisonment for a term not being imprisonment in default of payment of fine, the period of detention, if any, undergone by him during the investigation, inquiry or trial of the same case and before the date of such conviction shall be set off against the term of imprisonment imposed on him on such conviction, and the liability of such person to undergo imprisonment on such conviction shall be restricted to the remainder, if any, of the term of imprisonment imposed on him.
Provided that in cases referred to in section 433A, such period of detention shall be set off against the period of fourteen years referred to in that section.

429. Saving

(1) Nothing in section 426 or section 427 shall be held to excuse any person from any part of the punishment to which he is liable upon his former or subsequent conviction.
(2) When an award of imprisonment in default of payment of a fine is annexed to a substantive sentence of imprisonment and the person undergoing the sentence is after its execution to undergo a further substantive sentence or further substantive sentences of imprisonment effect shall not be given to the award of imprisonment in default of payment of the fine until the person has undergone the further sentence or sentences.

430. Return of warrant on execution of sentence

When a sentence has been fully executed, the officer executing it shall return the warrant to the Court from which it is issued, with an endorsement under his hand certifying the manner in which the sentence has been executed.

431. Money ordered to be paid recoverable as a fine

Any money (other than a fine) payable by virtue of any order made under this Code, and the method of recovery of which is not otherwise expressly provided for, shall be recoverable as if it were a fine:
Provided that section 421 shall, in its application to an order under section 359, by virtue of this section, be construed as if in the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 421, after the words and figures “under section 357”, the words and figures “or an order for payment of costs under section 359” had been inserted.

E. — Suspension, remission and commutation of sentences

432. Power to suspend or remit sentences

(1) When any person has been sentenced to punishment for an offence, the appropriate Government may, at any lime, without conditions or upon any conditions which the person sentenced accepts, suspend the execution of his sentence or remit the whole or any part of the punishment to which he has been sentenced.

(2) Whenever an application is made to the appropriate Government for the suspension or remission of a sentence, the appropriate Government may require the presiding Judge of the Court before or by which the conviction was had or confirmed, to state his opinion as to whether the application should be granted or refused, together with his reasons for such opinion and also to forward with the statement of such opinion a certified copy of the record of the trial or of such record thereof as exists.
(3)
If any condition on which a sentence has been suspended or remitted is, in the opinion of the appropriate Government, not fulfilled, the appropriate Government may cancel the suspension or remission, and thereupon the person in whose favour the sentence has been suspended or remitted may, if at large, be arrested by any police officer, without warrant and remanded to undergo the unexpired portion of the sentence.
(4)
The condition on which a sentence is suspended or remitted under this section may be one to be fulfilled by the person in whose favour the sentence is suspended or remitted, or one independent of his will.
(5)
The appropriate Government may, by general rules or special orders, give directions as to the suspension of sentences and the conditions on which petitions should be presented and dealt with:
Provided that in the case of any sentence (other than a sentence of fine) passed on a male person above the age of eighteen years, no such petition by the person sentenced or by any other person on his behalf shall be entertained, unless the person sentenced is in jail, and,—
(a)where such petition is made by the person sentenced, it is presented through the officer in charge of the jail; or
(b)where such petition is made by any other person, it contains a declaration that the person sentenced is in jail.
(6)
The provisions of the above sub-sections shall also apply to any order passed by a Criminal Court under any section of this Code or of any other law which restricts the liberty of any person or imposes any liability upon him or his properly.
(7)
In this section and in section 433, the expression “appropriate Government” means,—
(a)in cases where the sentence is for an offence against, or the order referred to in sub-section (6) is passed under, any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends, the Central Government;
(b)in other cases the Government of the State within which the offender is sentenced or the said order is passed.
433. Power to commute sentence

The appropriate Government may, without the consent of the person sentenced commute—
(a)a sentence of death, for any other punishment provided by the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);
(b)a sentence of imprisonment for life, for imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years or for fine;
(c)a sentence of rigorous imprisonment for simple imprisonment for any term to which that person might have been sentenced, or for fine;
(d)a sentence of simple imprisonment, for fine.
433A. Restriction on powers of remission or commutation in certain cases

Notwithstanding anything contained in section 432, where a sentence of imprisonment for life is imposed on conviction of a person for an offence for which death is one of the punishment provided by laws or where a sentence of death imposed on a person has been commuted under section 433 into one of imprisonment for life, such person shall not be released from prison unless he had served at least fourteen years of imprisonment.

434. Concurrent power of Central Government in case of death sentences

The powers conferred by sections 432 and 433 upon the State Government may, in the case of sentences of death, also be exercised by the Central Government.

435. State Government to act after consultation with Central Government in certain cases

(1) The powers conferred by sections 432 and 433 upon the State Government to remit or commute a sentence, in any case where the sentence is for an offence—
(a)which was investigated by the Delhi Special Police Establishment constituted under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 (25 of 1946), or by any other agency empowered to make investigation into an offence under any Central Act other than this Code, or
(b)which involved the misappropriation or destruction of, or damage to, any property belonging to the Central Government, or
(c)which was committed by a person in the service of the Central Government, while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty.
shall not be exercised by the State Government except after consultation with the Central Government.
(2)
No order of suspension, remission or commutation of sentences passed by the State Government in relation to a person, who has been convicted of offences, some of which relate to matters to which the executive power of the Union extends, and who has been sentenced to separate terms of imprisonment which are to run concurrently, shall have effect unless an order for the suspension, remission or commutation, as the case may be, of such sentences has also been made by the Central Government in relation to the offences committed by such person with regard to matters to which the executive power of the Union extends.

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Chapter XXXIII –  Provisions as to Bail and Bonds

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Chapter XXXIV

Disposal of Property

451. Order for custody and disposal of property pending trial in certain cases

When any property is produced before any Criminal Court during an inquiry or trial, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit for the proper custody of such property pending the conclusion of the inquiry or trial, and, if the property is subject to speedy and natural decay, or if it is otherwise expedient so to do, the Court may, after recording such evidence as it thinks necessary, order it to be sold or otherwise disposed of.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, “property” includes—
(a)property of any kind or document which is produced before the Court or which is in its custody.
(b)any property regarding which an offence appears to have been committed or which appears to have been used for the commission of any offence.

452. Order for disposal of property at conclusion of trial

(1) When an inquiry or trial in any Criminal Court is concluded, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit for the disposal, by destruction, confiscation or delivery to any person claiming to be entitled to possession thereof or otherwise, of any property or document produced before it or in its custody, or regarding which any offence appears to have been committed, or which has been used for the commission of any offence.
(2) An order may be made under sub-section (1) for the delivery of any property to any person claiming to be entitled to the possession thereof, without any condition or on condition that he executes a bond with or without sureties, to the satisfaction of the Court, engaging to restore such property to the Court if the order made under sub-section (1) is modified or set aside on appeal or revision.
(3) A Court of Session may, instead of itself making an order under sub-section (1), direct the property to be delivered to the Chief Judicial Magistrate, who shall thereupon deal with it in the manner provided in sections 457, 458 and 459.
(4) Except where the properly is livestock or is subject to speedy and natural decay, or where a bond has been executed in pursuance of sub-section (2), an order made under sub-section (1) shall not be carried out for two months, or when an appeal is presented, until such appeal has been disposed of.
(5) In this section, the term “property” includes, in the case of properly regarding which an offence appears to have been committed, not only such property as has been originally in the possession or under the control of any party, but also any property into or for which the same may have been converted or exchanged, and anything acquired by such conversion or exchange, whether immediately or otherwise.

453. Payment to innocent purchaser of money found on accused

When any person is convicted of any offence which includes, or amounts to, theft or receiving stolen property, and it is proved that any other person bought the stolen property from him without knowing or having reason to believe that the same was stolen, and that any money has on his arrest been taken out of the possession of the convicted person, the Court may, on me application of such purchaser and on the restitution of the stolen property to the person entitled to the possession thereof, order that out of such money a sum not exceeding the price paid by such purchaser be delivered to him.

454. Appeal against orders under section 452 or section 453

(1) Any person aggrieved by an order made by a Court under section 452 or section 453, may appeal against it to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from convictions by the former Court.
(2) On such appeal, the Appellate Court may direct the order to be stayed pending disposal of the appeal, or may modify, alter or annul the order and make any further orders that may be just.
(3) The powers referred to in sub-section (2) may also be exercised by a Court of appeal, confirmation or revision while dealing with the case in which the order referred to in sub-section (1) was made.

455. Destruction of libellous and other matter

(1) On a conviction under section 292, section 293, section 501 or section 502 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), the Court may order the destruction of all the copies of the thing in respect of which the conviction was had, and which are in the custody of the Court or remain in the possession or power of the person convicted.
(2) The Court may, in like manner, on a conviction under section 272, section 273, section 274, or section 275 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), order the food, drink drug or medical preparation in respect of which the conviction was had, to be destroyed.

456. Power to restore possession of immovable property

(1) When a person is convicted of an offence attended by criminal force or show of force or by criminal intimidation, and it appears to the Court that, by such force or show of force or intimidation, any person has been dispossessed of any immovable property, the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that possession of the same be restored to that person after evicting by force, if necessary, any other person who may be in possession of the property:
Provided that no such order shall be made by the Court more than one month after the date of the conviction.
(2)
Where the Court trying the offence has not made an order under sub-section (1), the Court of appeal, confirmation or revision may, if it thinks fit, make such order while disposing of the appeal, reference or revision, as the case may be.
(3)
Where an order has been made under sub-section (1), the provisions of section 454 shall apply in relation thereto as they apply in relation to an order under section 453.
(4)
No order made under this section shall prejudice any right or interest to or in such immovable property which any person may be able to establish in a civil suit.

457. Procedure by police upon seizure of property

(1) Whenever the seizure of property by any police officer is reported to a Magistrate under the provisions of this Code, and such property is not produced before a Criminal Court during an inquiry or trial, the Magistrate may make such order as he thinks fit respecting the disposal of such property or the delivery of such properly to the person entitled to the possession thereof, or if such person cannot be ascertained, respecting the custody and production of such property.

(2) If the person so entitled is known, the Magistrate may order the property to be delivered to him on such conditions (if any) as the Magistrate thinks fit and if such person is unknown, the Magistrate may detain it and shall, in such case, issue a proclamation specifying the articles of which such property consists, and requiring any person who may have a claim thereto, to appear before him and establish his claim within six months from the date of such proclamation.

458. Procedure when no claimant appears within six months

(1) If no person within such period establishes his claim to such property, and if the person in whose possession such property was found is unable to show that it was legally acquired by him, the Magistrate may by order direct that such property shall be at the disposal of the State Government and may be sold by that Government and the proceeds of such sale shall be dealt with in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) An appeal shall lie against any such order to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from convictions by the Magistrate.

459. Power to sell perishable property

If the person entitled to the possession of such property is unknown or absent and the property is subject to speedy and natural decay, or if the Magistrate to whom its seizure is reported is of opinion that its sale would be for the benefit of the owner, or that the value of such property is less than five hundred rupees, the Magistrate may at any time direct it to be sold; and the provisions of sections 457 and 458 shall, as nearly as may be practicable, apply to the net proceeds of such sale.

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Chapter XXXV

Irregular Proceedings

460. Irregularities which do not vitiate proceedings

If any Magistrate not empowered by law to do any of the following things, namely:—

(a)to issue a search-warrant under section 94;
(b)to order, under section 155, the police to investigate an offence;
(c)to hold an inquest under section 176;
(d)to issue process under section 187, for the apprehension of a person within his local jurisdiction who has committed an offence outside the limits of such jurisdiction;
(e)to take cognizance of an offence under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 190;

(f)to make over a case under sub-section (2) of section 192;

(g)to tender a pardon under section 306;
(h)to recall a case and try it himself under section 410; or
(i)to sell property under section 458 or section 459,
erroneously in good faith does that thing, his proceedings shall not be set aside merely on the ground of his not being so empowered.

461. Irregularities which vitiate proceedings

If any Magistrate, not being empowered by law in this behalf, does any of the following things, namely:—

(a)attaches and sells property under section 83;
(b)issues a search-warrant for a document, parcel or other thing in the custody of a postal or telegraph authority;
(c)demands security to keep the peace;
(d)demands security for good behaviour;
(e)discharges a person lawfully bound to be of good behaviour;
(f)cancels a bond to keep the peace;
(g)makes an order for maintenance;
(h)makes an order under section 133 as to a local nuisance;

(i)prohibits, under section 143, the repetition or continuance of a public nuisance;

(j)makes an order under Part C or Part D of Chapter X;
(k)takes cognizance of an offence under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 190;
(l)tries an offender;
(m)tries an offender summarily;
(n)passes a sentence, under section 325, on proceedings recorded by another Magistrate;
(o)decides an appeal;
(p)calls, under section 397, for proceedings; or
(q)revises an order passed under section 446,

his proceedings shall be void.

462. Proceedings in wrong place

No finding, sentence or order of any Criminal Court shall be set aside merely on the ground that the inquiry, trial or other proceedings in the course of which it was arrived at or passed, took place in a wrong sessions division, district, sub-division or other local area, unless it appears that such error has in fact occasioned a failure of justice.

463. Non-compliance with provisions of section 164 or section 281

(1) If any Court before which a confession or other statement of an accused person recorded, or purporting to be recorded under section 164 or section 281, is tendered, or has been received, in evidence finds that any of the provisions of either of such sections have not been complied with by the Magistrate recording the statement, it may, notwithstanding anything contained in section 91 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), take evidence in regard to such non-compliance, and may, if satisfied that such non-compliance has not injured the accused in his defence on the merits and that he duly made the statement recorded, admit such statement.
(2)The provisions of this section apply to Courts of appeal, reference and revision.

464. Effect of omission to frame, or absence of, or error in, charge

(1)No finding sentence or order by a Court of competent jurisdiction shall be deemed invalid merely on the ground that no charge was framed or on the ground of any error, omission or irregularity in the charge including any misjoinder of charge, unless, in the opinion of the Court of appeal, confirmation or revision, a failure of justice has in fact been occasioned thereby.
(2)If the Court of appeal, confirmation or revision is of opinion that a failure of justice has in fact been occasioned, it may—
(a)in the case of an omission to frame a charge, order that a charge be framed and that the trial be recommenced from the point immediately after the framing of the charge.
(b)in the case of an error, omission or irregularity in the charge, direct a new trial to be had upon a charge framed in whatever manner it thinks fit:
Provided that if the Court is of opinion that the facts of the case are such that no valid charge could be preferred against the accused in respect of the facts proved, it shall quash the conviction.

465. Finding or sentence when reversible by reason of error, omission or irregularity

(1)Subject to the provisions hereinbefore contained, on finding sentence or order passed by a Court of competent jurisdiction shall be reversed or altered by a Court of appeal, confirmation or revision on account of any error, omission or irregularity in the complaint, summons, warrant, proclamation, order, judgment or other proceedings before or during trial or in any inquiry or other proceedings under this Code, or any error, or irregularity in any sanction for the prosecution unless in the opinion of that Court, a failure of justice has in fact been occasioned thereby.
(2)In determining whether any error, omission or irregularity in any proceeding under this Code, or any error, or irregularity in any sanction for the prosecution has occasioned a failure of justice, the Court shall have regard to the fact whether the objection could and should have been raised at an earlier stage in the proceedings.

466. Defect or error not to make attachment unlawful

No attachment made under this Code shall be deemed unlawful, nor shall any person making the same be deemed a trespasser, on account of any defect or want or form in the summons, conviction, writ of attachment or other proceedings relating thereto.

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Chapter XXXVI

Limitation for Taking Cognizance of Certain Offences

467. Definitions

For the purposes of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise, requires, “period of limitation” means the period specified in section 468 for taking cognizance of an offence.

468. Bar to taking cognizance after lapse of the period of limitation

(1)Except as otherwise provided elsewhere in this Code, no Court, shall take cognizance of an offence of the category specified in sub-section (2), after the expiry of the period of limitation.

(2)The period of limitation shall be-

(a)six months, if the offence is punishable with fine only;

(b)one year, if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year;

(c)three years, if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for a term exceeding one year but not exceeding three years.

(3)For the purposes of this section, the period of limitation, in relation to offences which may be tried together, shall be determined with reference to the offence which is punishable with the more severe punishment or, as the case may be, the most severe punishment.

469. Commencement of the period of limitation

(1) The period of limitation, in relation to an offence, shall commence,—

(a)on the date of the offence; or

(b)where the commission of the offence was not known to the person aggrieved by the offence or to any police officer, the first day on which such offence comes to the knowledge of such person or to any police officer, whichever is earlier; or

(c)where it is not known by whom the offence was committed, the first day on which the identity of the offender is known to the person aggrieved by the offence or to the police officer making investigation into the offence, whichever is earlier.

(2) In computing the said period, the day from which such period is to be computed shall be excluded.

470. Exclusion of time in certain cases

(1) In computing the period of limitation, the time during which any person has been prosecuting with due diligence another prosecution, whether in a Court of first instance or in a Court of appeal or revision, against the offender, shall be excluded:
Provided that no such exclusion shall be made unless the prosecution relates to the same facts and is prosecuted in good faith in a Court which from defect of jurisdiction or other cause of a like nature, is unable to entertain it.

(2) Where the institution of the prosecution in respect of an offence has been stayed by an injunction or order, then, in computing the period of limitation, the period of the continuance of the injunction or order, the day on which it was issued or made, and the day on which it was withdrawn, shall be excluded.

(3) Where notice of prosecution for an offence has been given, or where , under any law for the time being in force, the previous consent or sanction of the Government or any other authority is required for the institution of any prosecution for an offence, than, in computing the period of limitation, the period of such notice or, as the case may be, the time required for obtaining such consent or sanction shall be excluded.

Explanation.—In computing the time required for obtaining the consent or sanction of the Government or any other authority, the date on which the application was made for obtaining the consent or sanction and the date of receipt of the order of the Government or other authority shall both be excluded.
(4) In computing the period of limitation, the time during which the offender—
(a)has been absent from the India or from any territory outside India which is under the administration of the Central Government, or
(b)has avoided arrest by absconding or concealing himself,
shall be excluded.

471. Exclusion of date on which Court is closed

Where the period of limitation expires on a day when the Court is closed, the Court may take cognizance on the day on which the Court reopens.
Explanation.—A Court shall be deemed to be closed on any day within the meaning of this section, if, during its normal working hours, it remains closed on that day.

472. Continuing offence

In the case of a continuing offence, a fresh period of limitation shall begin to run at every moment of the time during which the offence continues.

473. Extension of period of limitation in certain cases

Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, any Court may make cognizance of an offence after the expiry of the period of limitations, if it is satisfied on the facts and in the circumstances of the case that the delay has been properly explained or that it is necessary so to do in the interests of justice.

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Chapter XXXVII

 Miscellaneous

474. Trials before High Court

When an offence is tried by the High Court otherwise than under section 407, it shall, in the trial of the offence, observe the same procedure as a Court of Sessions would observe, if it were trying the case.

475. Delivery to commanding officers of persons liable to be tried by Court-martial

(1) The Central Government may make rules consistent with this Code and the Army Act, 1950 (46 of 1950), the Navy Act, 1957 (62 of 1957), and the Air Force Act, 1950 (45 of 1950), and any other law, relating to the Armed Forces of the Union, for the time being in force, as to cases in which persons subject to military, navel or air force law, or such other law, shall be tried by a Court to which this Code applies or by a Court-martial, and when any person is brought before a Magistrate and charged with an offence for which he is liable to be tried either by a Court to which this Code applies or by a Court-martial, such Magistrate shall have regard to such rules, and shall in proper cases deliver him, together with a statement of the offence of which he is accused, to the commanding officer of the unit to which he belongs, or to the commanding officer of the nearest military, naval or air-force station, as the case may be, for purpose of being tried by a Court-martial.
Explanation.—In this section—
(a)”unit” includes a regiment, corps, ship, detachment, group, battalion or company.
(b)”Court-martial” includes any tribunal with the powers similar to those of a Court-martial constituted under the relevant law applicable to the Armed Forces of the Union.
(2) Every Magistrate shall, on receiving a written application for that purposes by the commanding officer of any unit or body of soldiers, sailors or airmen stationed or employed at any such place, use his utmost endeavours to apprehend and secure any person accused of such offence.
(3) A High Court may, if it thinks fit, direct that a prisoner detained in any jail situate within the State be brought before a Court-martial for trial or to be examined touching any matter pending before the Court-martial.

476. Forms

Subject to the power conferred by Article 227 of the Constitution, the forms set forth in the Second Schedule, with such variations as the circumstances of each case require, may be used for the respective purposes therein mentioned, and if used shall be sufficient.

477. Power of High Court to make rules

(1) Every High Court may, with the previous approval of the State Government, make rules—
(a)as to the persons who may be permitted to act as petition-writers in the Criminal Courts subordinate to it;
(b)regulating the issue of licenses to such persons, the conduct of business by them, and the scale of fees to be charged by them.
(c)providing a penalty for a contravention of any of the rules so made and determining the authority by which such contravention may be investigated and the penalties imposed;
(d)any other matter which is required to be, may be, prescribed.
(2) All rules made under this section shall be published in the Official Gazette.

478. Power to alter functions allocated to Executive Magistrates in certain cases

If the Legislative Assembly of a State by a resolution so permits, the State Government may, after consultation with High Court, by notification, direct that references in sections 108, 109 , 110 , 145 and 147 to an Executive Magistrate shall be construed as references to a Judicial Magistrate of the first class.

479. Cases in which Judge or Magistrate is personally interested

No Judge or Magistrate shall, except with the permission of the Court to which an appeal lies from his Court, try or commit for trial any case to or in which he is a party, or personally interested, and no Judge or Magistrate shall hear an appeal from any judgement or order passed or made by himself.

Explanation — A Judge or Magistrate shall not be deemed to be a party to, or personally interested in, any case by reason only that he is concerned therein in a public capacity, or by reason only that he has viewed the place in which an offence is alleged to have been committed or any other place in which any other transaction material to the case is alleged to have occurred and made an inquiry in connection with the case.

480. Practising pleader not to sit as Magistrate in certain Courts

No pleader who practices in the Court of any Magistrate shall sit as a Magistrate in that Court or in any Court within the local jurisdiction of that Court.
481. Public servant concerned in sale not to purchase or bid for property

A public servant having any duty to perform in connection with the sale of any property under this Code shall not purchase or bid for the properly.

482. Saving of inherent power of High Court

Nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or affect the inherent powers of the High Court to make such orders as may be necessary to give effect to any order this Code, or to prevent abuse of the process of any Court or otherwise to secure the ends of justice.

483. Duty of High Court to exercise continuous superintendence over Courts of Judicial Magistrates

Every High Court shall so exercise its superintendence over the Courts of Judicial Magistrates subordinate to it as to ensure that there is an expeditious and proper disposal of cases by such Magistrates.

484. Repeal and savings

(1) The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5 of 1898), is hereby repealed.

(2) Notwithstanding such repeal,-

(a)if, immediately before the date on which this Code conies into force, there is any appeal, application, trial inquiry or investigation pending, then, such appeal, application, trial, inquiry or investigation shall be disposed of, continued, held or made, as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 ( 5 of 1898 ), as in force immediately before such commencement (hereinafter referred to as the Old Code), as if this Code had not come into force:

Provided that every inquiry under Chapter XVIII of the Old Code, which is pending at the commencement of this Code, shall be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with the provisions of this Code;

(b)all notifications published, proclamations issued, powers conferred, forms prescribed, local jurisdictions defined, sentences passed and orders, rules and appointments, not being appointments as Special Magistrates, made under the Old Code and which are in force immediately before the commencement of this Code, shall be deemed, respectively to have been published, issued, Conferred, prescribed defined, passed or made under the corresponding provisions of this Code.

(c)any sanction accorded or consent given under the Old Code in pursuance of which no proceeding was commenced under that Code, shall be deemed to have been accorded or given under the corresponding provisions of this Code and proceedings may be commenced under this Code in pursuance of such sanction or consent;

(d)the provisions of the Old Code shall continue to apply in relation to every prosecution against a Ruler within the meaning of Article 363 of the Constitution.

(3) Where the period prescribed for an application or other proceeding under the old Code had expired on or before the commencement of this Code, nothing in this Code shall be construed as enabling any such application to be made or proceeding to be commenced under this Code by reason only of the fact that a longer period therefore is prescribed by this Code or provisions are made in this Code for the extension of time.

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