Background of the Legal Profession in India

Lawyers have been in the vanguard of a country’s progress and have always zealously guarded human liberties and the rule of law.

The dawn of Legal Profession in India could be seen in the Indian High Courts Act, 1861 (commonly known as the Charter Act) which authorised establishment of the High Courts under the Letters Patent and those Letters Patent empowered the High Courts to make rules for enrolment of Advocates and attorneys who were also known as solicitors. In the early days three Acts, namely, the Legal Practitioners Act, 1879 (18 of 1879), the Bombay Pleaders Act, 1920 (17 of 1920) and the Indian Bar Councils Act, 1926 (38 of 1926) relating to legal Practitioners were enacted. The importance of legal profession in the Judicial Administration while dispensing justice with the aid of those who could effectively present the case of a litigant, was designed to usher in bringing the rule of law. The legal profession was acknowledged as the noble profession as it catered to, and contributed to lay the firm foundations of a system that dispenses fair and impartial justice. The desire of common man to receive justice was taken care of by making provisions for the presentation of a case and its redressal through persons in whom trust was reposed.

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India World Heritage List by UNESCO

The list of “World Heritage sites” declared by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (hereinafter ‘UNESCO’). The UNESCO is a specialized agency of the United Nations and inter alia its objective is to encourage the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. In pursuance of the same, the UNESCO Conference adopted the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1972, emphasizing the obligation of State parties to take necessary measures for the conservation and protection of world heritage properties.

Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention

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Reminiscences of the Nehru Age by M O Mathai

Reminiscences of the Nehru Age

M.O. Mathai was assistant to India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Mathai worked with the United States Army in India before becoming an assistant to Nehru in 1946. He was a Madras University graduate working in Assam when he wrote to Nehru soon after Nehru’s release from prison in 1945, offering his services.

He was Nehru’s Special Assistant and alter ego between  1946 and 1959, was reputed to be the most powerful man after the  Prime Minister during the years that he served Jawaharlal.

For over a decade that he was at the very hub of the decision-making process, Mathai was the only one to know everything about Nehru, most especially the first Prime Minister’s private thoughts about Politics,  Congress leaders, Bureaucrats,  Money, Women, Sex, and Alcohol,  along with much else that attracted his attention off and on.

So we have completely new information, never before published,  about Nehru’s style, Krishna Menon’s personal habits, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit’s extravagance, Feroze Gandhi’s ambitions, and Mountbatten’s weakness for titles and honours. In the process, new light is thrown on Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Patel, Kidwai, TTK, Maulana Azad, Rajaji, Rajendra Prasad, Radhakrishnan, Churchill, Shaw, and Lady Mountbatten.

This work is a major contribution to modern Indian history as it gives an insider’s view of how the powerful often tried to manipulate Nehru for purposes that were not always conducive to nation-building.

M.O. Mathai, Nehru’s Special Assistant till 1959, when he resigned his post on account of
unfounded malicious allegations by  Communists against him for misusing power, is eminently qualified to write a full and authentic account of the Nehru years, which he has done in this book.

Mathai wrote: “Nehru, recognized as one of the world’s five best English prose writers of his day, was loath to sign anything drafted by others except strictly protocol communications. The result was that he had to spend an enormous amount of time in dictating letters and drafting or dictating statements and speeches. He has signed more communications drafted by me than by all the others put together.  That was because, when the signed letters and notes came from him, I would detain some that were dictated in his weariness late at night. These I redrafted for his signature.”

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Indian Computer emergency response team

Cyber Crime,Cyber Security,Cyber Law

Cybersecurity wings under the government of India

Cybersecurity in India affects both the public and the private sector and spans a broad range of issues related to  Indian national security, whether through terrorism, crime or state and industrial espionage.

E-crime, or cybercrime, whether relating to theft, hacking or denial of service to vital systems, has become a reality of life. The risk of industrial cyber espionage, in which one company makes active attacks on another, through cyberspace, to acquire high-value information is also a fact.

Cyber terrorism presents challenges for the future no only for India but for the world. CERT is prepared for terrorist attacks through the internet of Indian key military or space installations or disables key information systems.

Government of india

Functions :

Keep a current empanelled list of IT security auditors

(i) Receiving and scrutiny of applications
(ii) Off-line in-house Practical Skills Test for successful applications
(iii) Online Practical Skills Test for the applications successfully qualifying steps
(iv) Personal Interaction session for the applicants successful in all earlier steps
(v) Background verification by a suitable Government agency for successful applications.

Respond to a Security incident

(i) Reporting of cybersecurity incidents to Incident Response Helpdesk via.
(b) Tel:- 1 800-11- 4949 (Toll free)

Incident Reporting form
(c) Fax:- 011-24368546 1800- 11- 6969 (Toll free)

(ii) Initial examination and registration of cybersecurity incident.
(iii) Analysis and response of cybersecurity incident

Issuance of security alerts on the latest threats and vulnerabilities

(i) Tracking of latest threats & vulnerabilities
(ii) Preparation of security alerts, advisories & vulnerability notes
(iii) Publishing of security alerts, advisories & vulnerability notes on CERT-In websites
(iv) sending security alerts, advisories & vulnerability notes via email to registered users
through mailing list

Government Computer Emergency Response Team [CERT]

Article 3 Constitution of India

Constitution of India

Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States

  1. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.

Parliament may by law-

(a) form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;

(b) increase the area of any State;

(c) diminish the area of any State;

(d) alter the boundaries of any State;

(e) alter the name of any State:

Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries or name of any of the States,the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.

Explanation I .-In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), “State” includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, “State” does not include a Union territory.

Explanation II .-The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory.

Article 3 Constitution of India

Constitution of India [Full-Text View]

Article 2 Constitution of India

Constitution of India

Admission or establishment of new States

2. Admission or establishment of new States

Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

2A. Sikkim to be associated with the Union.

[ Repealed by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act , 1975, section 5 (w.e.f.26-4-1975).]

Constitution of India [Full-Text View]

Article 1 Constitution of India

Constitution of India

Name and territory of the Union

Constitution of India [Index]

1. Name and territory of the Union.

(1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.

(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.

(3) The territory of India shall comprise-

(a) The territories of the States;

(b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and

(c) such other territories as may be acquired.

Constitution of India [Full-Text View]

Court Cases

  1. In re: The Berubari union and exchange of enclaves [AIR 1960 SC 845 : (1960) 3 SCR 250]
  2. N. Masthan Sahib AND OTHERS[AIR 1962 SC 797 : (1962) 1 Suppl. SCR 981]
  3. Maganbhai Ishwarbhai Patel[AIR 1969 SC 783 : (1969) 3 SCR 254 ]
  4. Sarbananda Sonowal [AIR 2005 SC 2920]
  5. State of West Bengal and OTHERS Vs The Committee for Protection of Democratic Rights, West Bengal and OTHERS[AIR 2010 SC 1476 : JT 2010 (2) SC 352 ]

Complete list of Indian states:

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jharkhand
  11. Karnataka
  12. Kerala
  13. Madhya Pradesh
  14. Maharashtra
  15. Manipur
  16. Meghalaya
  17. Mizoram
  18. Nagaland
  19. Odisha
  20. Punjab
  21. Rajasthan
  22. Sikkim
  23. Tamil Nadu
  24. Telangana
  25. Tripura
  26. Uttar Pradesh
  27. Uttarakhand
  28. West Bengal

Full list of Union Territories in India:

With the inclusion of J&K and Ladakh, here is the full list of UTs in India:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Daman and Diu
  4. Dadar and Nagar Haveli
  5. Delhi
  6. Jammu and Kashmir
  7. Ladakh
  8. Lakshadweep
  9. Puducherry
  10. Jammu and Kashmir [Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act 2019]
  11. Ladakh [Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act 2019]

Map published by Govt of India 2nd November 2019

New Map of India 2019

India as on 15th August 1947


India as on 1920

Akhanda Bharat

Read More:

Native Indian rulers were sovereign and they parted their sovereignty by accession and integration: SC


Mission Shakti India’s Anti-Satellite Missile

Government of india

Mission Shakti India’s Anti-Satellite Missile test conducted on 27 March 2019

Press release

March 27, 2019

I. What was the test?

1. On March 27, 2019 India conducted Mission Shakti, an anti-satellite missile test, from the Dr A P J Abdul Kalam Island launch complex. This was a technological mission carried out by DRDO. The satellite used in the mission was one of India’s existing satellites operating in a lower orbit. The test was fully successful and achieved all parameters as per plans. The test required an extremely high degree of precision and technical capability.

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Bharatiya Upa Mahadesh

The UAE will give highest civilian award to Prime Minister Narendra Modi

19 August 2019: The UAE will give highest civilian award to Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his visit to the Gulf state next week, The Hindu reported Monday.

According to a statement from the Indian External Affairs Ministry, Modi will visit the UAE on August 23 and 24 where he will receive the Order of Zayed, the highest civilian award of the country.

Modi would also pay a state visit to Bahrain on August 24 and 25 where he would launch the renovation of a temple of Shreenathji, it further added.

“The order in the name of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, founding father of the UAE, acquires special significance as it is awarded to Prime Minister Modi in the year of the birth centenary of Sheikh Zayed,” the statement said.