Roman Law

Roman law is the law that was valid in the city of Rome in ancient time and later in the Roman Empire. After the end of Roman rule in Europe, in modification, it applied and not completely abandoned.

In the Middle Ages (from about the end of the 11th century onwards), people began to revert to the law of the Romans. At first, Roman law was scientifically studied and taught at the universities in Bologna, then it applied, in the field of civil law. This process of the reintroduction of Roman law took place at various times and to varying extents in almost all of Europe except England. For example, from the 16th century, Roman law applied in large parts of Europe. However, the received law was not identical with the Roman law of antiquity: it had been changed in numerous ways during the process of reception and mixed with legal ideas of other origins. Because the law, which was based on the reception and transformation of ancient Roman law, was common to the various states and regions of Europe, it is called Ius Commune or Common Law.

In the form of common law, Roman law applied in Europe until it was replaced by the civil-law codifications of the 18th and 19th centuries. In some areas of Germany, it was until the entry into force of the Civil Code on 1.1.1900.

Law of the Twelve Tables[451-450 B.C.E]

Institutes[Institutiones]of Justinian


  1. Commentarius Primus
  2. Commentarius Secundus
  3. Commentarius Tertius
  4. Commentarius Quartus