What is the meaning of Works contract

Karnataka Sales Tax Act, 1957 – Section 2(1)(v-i) -2(1)(k) : “Works contract” means a contract made by the State Government or the public undertaking with any other person for the execution of any of its works relating to construction, repairs or maintenance of any building or superstructure, dam, weir, canal, reservoir, tank, lake, road, well, bridge, culvert, factory or workshop or of such other work of the State Government or, as the case may be, of the public undertaking, as the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette specify, and include – Continue reading

What is the meaning of ‘best before the date’ written on the body of a food container

One can Complain that the label did not contain “best before date” and hence the food item was misbranded, as it contravened R.32(i) of the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules. Since the item involved in this case was having a short shelf life of less than three months, it was necessary to mention only the date of manufacture on the label. Therefore, the only violation alleged by the Public Analyst was that instead of showing “best before date” on the label, the food item in this case had the label “assurance 30 days”.

 I may now consider as to whether by writing the words ‘assurance 30 days’ instead of ‘best before date’, it would contravene R.32(i) of the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955. By using the words “best before date”, the meaning intended to be conveyed is that the consumer must use it before that date. I may now examine whether the public would be misguided by writing the words “assurance 30 days” instead of writing ‘best before date’ on the label. For that purpose, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the word “assurance”. In P. Ramanatha Aiyar’s Advanced Law Lexicon, fourth edition, the word ‘assurance’ in contract means “making secure” or “insure”. In Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, Ninth Edition, the synonym of the word ‘assurance’ is ‘guarantee’. Therefore, even though the terminology found in ‘assurance 30 days’ and ‘best before date’, differs in appearance, actually, no consumer would definitely be misguided, if he happens to see the words ‘assurance 30 days’. In the said circumstances, even if the words ‘best before date’ are not there and instead, the words assurance 30 days’ are there, it will not, in any way mislead the consumer, and hence by no stretch of imagination, it can be said that the product had been misbranded, particularly when the product was not adulterated.

In an case in Nehrudasan v. Food Inspector, Madurai Corporation (2010 (1) FAC 49), a learned Single Judge of the High Court of Madras held that the absence of the words “best before date” and use of words “use within six months from the date of manufacture” would not in any way mislead the consumer and hence, it could not be termed as misbranding of the product.

By using the language ‘best before date’, the meaning to be conveyed is that the consumers must use it before the period mentioned therein and if such a meaning can be conveyed by the language ‘assurance 30 days, it cannot be said that there was misbranding of the food item. In this case, it is clear from the words ‘assurance 30 days’ that there was guarantee for the product only for thirty days. The date of manufacture was also mentioned on the label. Therefore, any consumer, who reads ‘assurance 30 days’ would be able to know that the product would be guaranteed only for a period of thirty days from the date of manufacture. The mere change of words would in no way, in my view, mislead the usage of the product among the public and hence, it cannot be said that the product had been misbranded. In the case on hand, the absence of the words ‘best before date” would not in any way mislead the consumer and hence, by no stretch of imagination, it could be treated as misbranding of the product contravening the provisions of R.32(i) of the Rules, particularly when the food item was not adulterated.[ (2016) CriLJ 2069 : (2016) 4 JCC 2302 : (2016) 1 KHC 752 : (2016) 1 KLT 753 : (2016) 4 RCR(Criminal) 41- KERALA HIGH COURT MARTIN JOSEPH — Appellant Vs. STATE OF KERALA — Respondent]

What is the meaning of Royalty Collection Contract

Rajasthan Minor Mineral Concession Rules, 1986 –Rule 3(xiii-a) defines ‘Excess Royalty Collection Contract’ thus:

Excess Royalty Collection Contract” means a contract for specified mineral(s) and area given to collect royalty in excess of annual dead rent, on behalf of the Government from the holder of mining lease (s) under the contract whereunder the contractor shall pay a fixed amount annually to the Government as per terms of the contract.

‘Royalty Collection Contract’ is defined in Clause (xxi) of Rule 3 as follows:

Royalty Collection Contract” means a contract for the specific mineral or minerals given to collect royalty [with or without permit fee as the case may be] on behalf of the Government from the quarry licensees and short term permit holders who excavate minor minerals from the lands specified under the contract whereunder the contractor undertakes to pay fixed amount annually to the Government save as exempted under Rule 58; Continue reading

What is the meaning of ‘ready delivery contract’

Bombay Securities Contracts Control Act, 1925. The words ‘ready delivery contract’ has been defined in Sub-section (4) of Section 3 of the said Act which reads as under:

(4) ‘ready delivery contract’ means a contract for the purchase or sale of securities for performance of which no time is specified and which is to be performed immediately or within reasonable time.

Under the said definition ready delivery contract is a contract for purchase or sale of securities for the performance of which no time is specified and it has to be performed within reasonable time. In that light of the matter, Division Bench has made a distinction between contingent contract and regular contract. It has been held by the Division Bench that a contingent contract is not contract at all till such contingency happens. However, provision of Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 defines the spot delivery contract as under: Continue reading

What is the meaning of ” proper law of the contract”

The observation of Lord Wright (on this subject) while delivering the judgment of the Privy Council in Mount Albert Borough Council v. Aus. T. and G Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd. (1937) 4 All ER 206 at p. 214 (C).

“The proper law of the contract means that law which the English or other court is to apply in determining the obligations under the contract. English Law, in deciding these matters, has refused to treat as conclusive, rigid or arbitrary criteria such as lex loci contractus or lex loci solutionis and has treated the matter as depending on the intention of the parties, to be ascertained in each case on a consideration of the terms of the contract, the situation of the parties & generally on all the surrounding facts. It may be that the parties have in terms in their agreement expressed what law they intend to govern, and in that case prima facie their intention will be effectuated by the court. But in most cases they do not do so. The parties may not have thought of the matter at all. Then the Court has to impute an intention, or to determine for the parties what is the proper law which, as just and reasonable persons, they ought to or would have intended if they had thought about the question when they made the contract. No doubt there are certain prima facie rules to which a Court, in deciding on any particular contract, may turn for assistance, but they are not conclusive. In this branch of law, the particular rules can only be stated as prima facie presumptions. Continue reading

What is the meaning of ‘Forward Contract’

Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, LXXIV of 1952, a ‘Forward Contract’ means a contract for the delivery of goods at a future date and which is not a ready delivery contract.

A ‘Ready Delivery Contract’ for the purpose of the Act means a contract which provides for the delivery of goods and the payment of a price therefore, either immediately or within such period not exceeding eleven days after the date of the contract and sublet to such conditions as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette specify in respect of any goods, the period under such contract not being capable of extension by the mutual consent of the parties thereto or otherwise. Continue reading

Vocabulary used in Indian Contract Act

Here we collected all the unique  english words used by the legislature for constituting and drafting The Indian Contract Act. We shall gradually explain the use and inherent meaning attached to each word.

  1. Abide
  2. Able
  3. About
  4. Absence
  5. Absents
  6. Absolute
  7. Absolutely
  8. Abstain
  9. Abstained
  10. Abstains
  11. Abstinence
  12. Accept
  13. Acceptance
  14. Accepted
  15. Accepting
  16. Acceptor
  17. Accepts
  18. According
  19. Accordingly
  20. Account
  21. Accounts
  22. Acquiescence
  23. Acquired
  24. Act
  25. Active
  26. Acts
  27. Actual
  28. Actually
  29. Addressed
  30. Adduced
  31. Adopts
  32. Advance
  33. Advanced
  34. Advantage
  35. Advantageous
  36. Advertised
  37. Affect
  38. Affected
  39. Affection
  40. Afford
  41. Affords
  42. After
  43. Afterward
  44. Again
  45. Against
  46. Age
  47. Agency
  48. Agent
  49. Agree
  50. Agreed
  51. Agreement
  52. Agreements
  53. Agrees
  54. All
  55. Alleged
  56. Alone
  57. Already
  58. Also
  59. Alter
  60. Alteration
  61. Alternative
  62. Although
  63. Amend
  64. Among
  65. Amount
  66. Amounting
  67. Amounts
  68. Annas
  69. Annually
  70. Annulment
  71. Another
  72. Any
  73. Anything
  74. Apparent
  75. Appear
  76. Appears
  77. Application
  78. Applied
  79. Applies
  80. Apply
  81. Apply
  82. Appoint
  83. Appointed
  84. Appropriates
  85. Appropriation
  86. Are/is
  87. Arisen
  88. Arising
  89. Arose
  90. Arrangement
  91. Arrear
  92. Arrears
  93. Arrival
  94. Arrive
  95. Arrived
  96. Arrived
  97. Arriving
  98. Article
  99. Articles
  100. Ascertained
  101. Ascertaining
  102. Aside
  103. Assent
  104. Assertion
  105. Assets
  106. Assume
  107. Asylum
  108. Attendant
  109. Auction
  110. Authority
  111. Authorized
  112. Avails
  113. Average
  114. Avoid
  115. Avoidable
  116. Aware
  117. Away
  118. Badly
  119. BailBond
  120. Bailee
  121. Bailment
  122. Balance
  123. Bales
  124. Bales
  125. Banker
  126. Banks
  127. Bargain
  128. Barred
  129. Bear
  130. Because
  131. Become
  132. Becomes
  133. Becoming
  134. Been
  135. Before
  136. Before
  137. Behalf
  138. Being
  139. Belief
  140. Believe
  141. Believes
  142. Belonging
  143. Benefit
  144. Bengal
  145. Between
  146. Beyond
  147. Bind
  148. Binding
  149. Board
  150. Boat
  151. Bodily
  152. Bombay
  153. Bombay
  154. Bond
  155. Books
  156. Borrows
  157. Both
  158. Bound
  159. Branch
  160. Breach
  161. Breaks
  162. Bring
  163. Brings
  164. Broken
  165. Brought
  166. Build
  167. Builder
  168. Builder’s
  169. Builds
  170. Burden
  171. Burnt
  172. Burnt
  173. Business
  174. Business
  175. But
  176. Buy
  177. Buyer
  178. Buys
  179. Calcutta
  180. Called
  181. Can
  182. Cannot
  183. Capable
  184. Capacity
  185. Caps
  186. Caps
  187. Cargo
  188. Carriage
  189. Carried
  190. Carrier
  191. Carries
  192. Carry
  193. Carrying
  194. Case
  195. Cases
  196. Cast
  197. Cause
  198. Caused
  199. Caused
  200. Causes
  201. Causing
  202. Ceases
  203. Cent
  204. Central
  205. Certain
  206. Change
  207. Chapter
  208. Charge
  209. Charged
  210. Chartered
  211. Child
  212. Children
  213. Circumstances
  214. Claim
  215. Claim
  216. Claimed
  217. Claiming
  218. Clause
  219. Click
  220. Close
  221. Closing
  222. Cloth
  223. CoconutOil
  224. CoconutOil
  225. Code
  226. Coercion
  227. Collateral
  228. Come
  229. Comes
  230. Coming
  231. Commencement
  232. Commerce
  233. Commit
  234. Committed
  235. Committing
  236. Common
  237. Communicate
  238. Communicated
  239. Communicating
  240. Communication
  241. Company
  242. Compel
  243. Compellable
  244. Compelled
  245. Compensate
  246. Compensation
  247. Compensations
  248. Competent
  249. Complaining
  250. Complete
  251. Conceal
  252. Concealment
  253. Concert
  254. Concubinage
  255. Condition
  256. Conditions
  257. Conduct
  258. Conducting
  259. Conform
  260. Connected
  261. Connivance
  262. Consent
  263. Consent
  264. Consent
  265. Consequence
  266. Consequences
  267. Consequent
  268. Consideration
  269. Consideration
  270. Considerations
  271. Considerations
  272. Considered
  273. Considering
  274. Considers
  275. Consignee
  276. Consisting
  277. Consists
  278. Contained
  279. Containing
  280. Contains
  281. Context
  282. Contingencies
  283. Contingent
  284. Continuance
  285. Continuance
  286. Contract
  287. Contracted
  288. Contracted
  289. Contracting
  290. Contracts
  291. Contracts
  292. Contrary
  293. Contribute
  294. Contribution
  295. Convert
  296. Convey
  297. Conveyance
  298. Conveyed
  299. Conveying
  300. Cost
  301. Cotton
  302. Could
  303. Country
  304. Course
  305. Court
  306. Created
  307. Credit
  308. Creditor
  309. Creditors
  310. Creditors
  311. Criminal
  312. Custody
  313. Custom
  314. Daim
  315. Damage
  316. Date
  317. Daughter
  318. Daughter
  319. Day
  320. Dead
  321. Dealer
  322. Death
  323. Debt
  324. Debtor
  325. Debts
  326. Deceased
  327. Deceive
  328. Declared
  329. Declares
  330. Declines
  331. Deemed
  332. Default
  333. Defaulter
  334. Defeat
  335. Define
  336. Defined
  337. Definite
  338. Delay
  339. Delayed
  340. Delays
  341. Delirious
  342. Delirium
  343. Deliver
  344. Deliver
  345. Delivered
  346. Delivered
  347. Delivering
  348. Delivers
  349. Delivery
  350. Delivery
  351. Demand
  352. Demand
  353. Demanded
  354. Demands
  355. Demands
  356. Denies
  357. Deny
  358. Deposit
  359. Deriving
  360. Description
  361. Desire
  362. Despatched
  363. Detain
  364. Detained
  365. Detaining
  366. Detention
  367. Determining
  368. Devider
  369. Devolution
  370. Die
  371. Dies
  372. Difference
  373. Diligence
  374. Diligence
  375. Disabled
  376. Discharge
  377. Discharged
  378. Discover
  379. Discovered
  380. Discovering
  381. Discretion
  382. Disease
  383. Dispense
  384. Dispensed
  385. Disqualified
  386. Distinct
  387. Distress
  388. Division
  389. Documents
  390. Documents
  391. Does
  392. Doing
  393. Dominate
  394. Done
  395. Donee
  396. Donor
  397. Down
  398. Drop
  399. Drunk
  400. Drunkenness
  401. Due
  402. Due
  403. Duly
  404. During
  405. Duty
  406. Each
  407. Earned
  408. Edition
  409. Effect
  410. Eight
  411. Either
  412. Elects
  413. Employ
  414. Employed
  415. Employes
  416. Employment
  417. Employs
  418. Enabled
  419. Enacted
  420. Enclose
  421. End
  422. Enfeebled
  423. Enforce
  424. Enforceable
  425. Enforced
  426. Enforcement
  427. Engagement
  428. Engages
  429. England
  430. English
  431. Enjoying
  432. Enjoys
  433. Enter
  434. Entered
  435. Entering
  436. Enters
  437. Entirety
  438. Entitle
  439. Entitled
  440. Entrusted
  441. Equal
  442. Equally
  443. Equivalent
  444. Erect
  445. Erroneous
  446. Erroneously
  447. Essence
  448. Essential
  449. Estate
  450. Estimating
  451. Event
  452. Every
  453. Evidence
  454. Examines
  455. Exceeding
  456. Exceeds
  457. Except
  458. Exception
  459. Excess
  460. Excessive
  461. Excused
  462. Execute
  463. Executed
  464. Exercise
  465. Exercising
  466. Existed
  467. Existence
  468. Expected
  469. Expedient
  470. Expense
  471. Expense
  472. Expenses
  473. Expiration
  474. Expired
  475. Explanation
  476. Express
  477. Express
  478. Expressed
  479. Expressions
  480. Expressly
  481. Extend
  482. Extends
  483. Extent
  484. Extinguishes
  485. Face
  486. Facilities
  487. Fact
  488. Fact
  489. Fact—
  490. Factory
  491. Factory
  492. Facts
  493. Facts
  494. Fails
  495. Fails
  496. Failure
  497. Failure
  498. Falls
  499. Falls
  500. Falsely
  501. Far
  502. Favour
  503. Fever
  504. Fiduciary
  505. Finder
  506. Finds
  507. Finish
  508. Fire
  509. First
  510. Firstly
  511. Fit
  512. Fitted
  513. Five
  514. Fixed
  515. Following
  516. Follows
  517. For
  518. Forbidden
  519. Forbids
  520. Force
  521. Foregoing
  522. Foreign
  523. Forfeits
  524. Form
  525. Former
  526. Forming
  527. Forms
  528. Forward Contracts
  529. Forwarded
  530. Found
  531. Fraud
  532. Fraud
  533. Fraudulent
  534. Fraudulent
  535. Fraudulently
  536. Free
  537. Free
  538. Freely
  539. Freight
  540. Freights
  541. Fresh
  542. From
  543. From
  544. Fulfil
  545. Furnish
  546. Furnished
  547. Further
  548. Future
  549. Gains
  550. Gambling
  551. Game
  552. Generality
  553. Generally
  554. Gift
  555. Give
  556. Given
  557. Given
  558. Gives
  559. Go
  560. Goes
  561. Good
  562. Goods
  563. Goodwill
  564. Government
  565. Government
  566. Goverrunent
  567. Grain
  568. Granary
  569. Grant
  570. Granted
  571. Gratuitously
  572. Greater
  573. Grounded
  574. Guarantee
  575. Had
  576. Hales
  577. Happen
  578. Happen
  579. Happened
  580. Happens
  581. Has
  582. Have
  583. Having
  584. He
  585. Her
  586. Here
  587. Hereby
  588. Herein
  589. Herself
  590. High
  591. Higher
  592. Him
  593. Him
  594. Himself
  595. Hire
  596. Hires
  597. His
  598. Holds
  599. Horse
  600. Horse
  601. HorseRace
  602. HorseRacing
  603. Hour
  604. Hours
  605. House
  606. House
  607. However
  608. Hundred
  609. If
  610. Ignorance
  611. Ignorant
  612. Ill
  613. Illegal
  614. Illness
  615. Illustration
  616. Immaterial
  617. Immoral
  618. Immoral
  619. Immovable
  620. Implied
  621. Implies
  622. Implying
  623. Impossibility
  624. Impossible
  625. Impossible
  626. Inadequacy
  627. Inadequate
  628. Incapable
  629. Incident
  630. Includes
  631. Including
  632. Inconsistent
  633. Inconvenience
  634. Increased
  635. Incumbrance
  636. Incurred
  637. Indebted
  638. Indebted
  639. Indemnity
  640. India
  641. Indian
  642. Indicated
  643. Indicating
  644. Indication
  645. Indigo
  646. Indirect
  647. Induce
  648. Induced
  649. Induces
  650. Infant
  651. Influence
  652. Influence
  653. Influence—
  654. Influence’
  655. Inform
  656. Information
  657. Informed
  658. Informing
  659. Informs
  660. Injured
  661. Injury
  662. Innocently
  663. Insist
  664. Insolvent
  665. Instalment
  666. Instalment
  667. Instalments
  668. Instead
  669. Instituted
  670. Instrument
  671. Intelligence
  672. Intended
  673. Intended
  674. Intending
  675. Intends
  676. Intent
  677. Intention
  678. Interest
  679. Interest
  680. Interested
  681. Interested
  682. Interested—
  683. Interests
  684. Interests
  685. Interpretation
  686. Intervals
  687. Intervals
  688. Intimate
  689. Intimation
  690. Intimidation
  691. Into
  692. Involves
  693. Iron
  694. Iron
  695. It
  696. Item
  697. Itself
  698. Jammu
  699. January
  700. Joint
  701. Jointly
  702. Jointly
  703. Judgment
  704. June
  705. Just
  706. Jute
  707. Kashmir
  708. Keeping
  709. Kind
  710. Knew
  711. Know
  712. Knowing
  713. Knowledge
  714. Known
  715. Knows
  716. Land
  717. Landed
  718. Last
  719. Lasts
  720. Late
  721. Latter
  722. Law
  723. Lawful
  724. Lawfully
  725. Leads
  726. Lease
  727. Leaves
  728. Legal
  729. Legalize
  730. Legally
  731. Legislature
  732. Lent
  733. Let
  734. Letter
  735. Letting
  736. Liabilities
  737. Liability
  738. Liable
  739. Liberty
  740. Lies
  741. Life
  742. Lifetime
  743. Like
  744. Likely
  745. Limitation
  746. Limitations
  747. Limits
  748. Lines
  749. Lives
  750. Living
  751. Loan
  752. Local
  753. Long
  754. Longer
  755. Lose
  756. Loses
  757. Loss
  758. Lost
  759. Love
  760. Lunatic
  761. Machine
  762. Machine
  763. Machinery
  764. Machinery
  765. Mad
  766. Made
  767. Magic
  768. Maintain
  769. Majority
  770. Make
  771. Makes
  772. Making
  773. Man
  774. Manager
  775. Manner
  776. Manufacture
  777. Manufacturer
  778. March
  779. Market
  780. Market
  781. Marriage
  782. Married
  783. Marries
  784. Marry
  785. Matter
  786. Maunds
  787. Maunds
  788. Mauritius
  789. May
  790. Meaning
  791. Means
  792. Measure
  793. Medical
  794. Mental
  795. Mentioned
  796. Mercantile
  797. Merchandise
  798. Mere
  799. Merely
  800. Might
  801. Mill
  802. Mill
  803. Mind
  804. Mind
  805. Minor
  806. Minority
  807. Mirzapur
  808. Misleading
  809. Misrepresentation
  810. Misrepresentation
  811. Misrepresentation
  812. Mistake
  813. Mistake
  814. Mistakes
  815. Misuse
  816. Mode
  817. Moment
  818. Money
  819. Money
  820. MoneyLender
  821. Month
  822. Month
  823. Monthly
  824. Months
  825. More
  826. Mortgage
  827. Mortgage
  828. MortgageDebt
  829. Much
  830. Mukhtar
  831. Must
  832. Must—
  833. Mutually
  834. Named
  835. Namely
  836. Natural
  837. Naturally
  838. Nature
  839. Near
  840. Necessaries
  841. Necessarily
  842. Necessary
  843. Need
  844. Neglect
  845. Neglects
  846. Neither
  847. Nevertheless
  848. New
  849. Next
  850. Night
  851. None
  852. NonFulfilment
  853. NonGratuitous
  854. NonPerformance
  855. Nor
  856. Not
  857. Note
  858. Nothing
  859. Notice
  860. Notwithstanding
  861. Novation
  862. Now
  863. Object
  864. Objects
  865. Obligation
  866. Obliged
  867. Obtain
  868. Obtainable
  869. Obtained
  870. Obtaining
  871. Obtains
  872. Occasionally
  873. Occasioned
  874. Occasions
  875. Of
  876. Off
  877. Offence
  878. Offer
  879. Offered
  880. Oil
  881. Oil
  882. Old
  883. Omission
  884. Omitted
  885. On
  886. One
  887. OneHalf
  888. Only
  889. Operates
  890. Opinion
  891. Opium
  892. Opportunities
  893. Opportunity
  894. Opposed
  895. Option
  896. Or
  897. Order
  898. Orders
  899. Ordinary
  900. Ore
  901. Original
  902. Other
  903. Others
  904. Otherwise
  905. Ought
  906. Out
  907. Over
  908. Owe
  909. Owed
  910. Owes
  911. Owing
  912. Own
  913. Own
  914. Owner
  915. Paid
  916. Paint
  917. Parental
  918. Part
  919. Particular
  920. Parties
  921. Parts
  922. Party
  923. passage money
  924. Patient
  925. Pawnor
  926. pawnee
  927. Pay
  928. Payable
  929. Paying
  930. Payment
  931. Payments
  932. Pays
  933. Penal
  934. Penalty
  935. Penalty
  936. Per
  937. Perform
  938. Perform—
  939. Performance
  940. Performed
  941. Performed
  942. Performing
  943. Permanently
  944. Permitted
  945. Person
  946. Person
  947. Personally
  948. Personally
  949. Persons
  950. Picture
  951. Piece
  952. Place
  953. Places
  954. Plate
  955. Pledge
  956. Point
  957. Policy
  958. Polygamy
  959. Port
  960. Port
  961. Position
  962. Positive
  963. Possession
  964. Possible
  965. Post
  966. Post
  967. Posted
  968. Posts
  969. Power
  970. Practise
  971. Practised
  972. Practises
  973. Preamble
  974. Prejudice
  975. Preparation
  976. Prescribed
  977. Prescribes
  978. Presence
  979. Prevent
  980. Prevented
  981. Preventing
  982. Prevents
  983. Price
  984. Prices
  985. Principal
  986. Principle
  987. Private
  988. Prize
  989. Prizes
  990. Proceed
  991. Proceedings
  992. Proceeds
  993. Procure
  994. Procuring
  995. Profession
  996. Professional
  997. Profit
  998. Profitable
  999. Profits
  1000. Prohibited
  1001. Promise
  1002. Promised
  1003. Promisee
  1004. Promises
  1005. Promising
  1006. Promisor
  1007. Promissory
  1008. Proper
  1009. Property
  1010. Proportionably
  1011. Proposal
  1012. Proposer
  1013. Proposes
  1014. Proposing
  1015. Proprietor
  1016. Prosecution
  1017. Prove
  1018. Proved
  1019. Provide
  1020. Provided
  1021. Proving
  1022. Provisions
  1023. Public
  1024. Punishable
  1025. Purchase
  1026. Purchaser
  1027. Purchasing
  1028. Purpose
  1029. Purpose
  1030. Purposes
  1031. Purse
  1032. Put
  1033. Puts
  1034. Quality
  1035. Quality
  1036. Quantity
  1037. Question
  1038. Railway
  1039. Rate
  1040. Rational
  1041. Reaches
  1042. Reaching
  1043. Ready
  1044. Real
  1045. Reason
  1046. Reasonable
  1047. Reasonable
  1048. Rebuilding
  1049. ReBuilt
  1050. Receive
  1051. Received
  1052. Received
  1053. Receives
  1054. Receiving
  1055. Reciprocal
  1056. Reciprocally
  1057. Recognizance
  1058. Recover
  1059. Recovering
  1060. Recovery
  1061. Redeemed
  1062. Reduction
  1063. Refrain
  1064. Refund
  1065. Refusal
  1066. Refused
  1067. Refuses
  1068. Regard
  1069. Regards
  1070. Registered
  1071. Registers
  1072. Registration
  1073. Regulation
  1074. Reimbursed
  1075. Reimbursement
  1076. Relating
  1077. Relation
  1078. Relations
  1079. Release
  1080. Released
  1081. Reliance
  1082. Remaining
  1083. Remedying
  1084. Remit
  1085. Remote
  1086. Render
  1087. Renders
  1088. Rent
  1089. Remuneration
  1090. Renunciation
  1091. Repair
  1092. Repair
  1093. Repairs
  1094. Repay
  1095. Repayment
  1096. Repealed
  1097. Representations
  1098. Representative
  1099. Representatives
  1100. Represents
  1101. Required
  1102. Requires
  1103. Rescind
  1104. Rescinding
  1105. Rescission
  1106. Resembling
  1107. Respect
  1108. Respective
  1109. Respectively
  1110. Responsibility
  1111. Responsible
  1112. Restore
  1113. Restrained
  1114. Restraint
  1115. Rests
  1116. Result
  1117. Retains
  1118. Return
  1119. Return
  1120. Returns
  1121. Revenue
  1122. Revocation
  1123. Revoke
  1124. Revoked
  1125. Revokes
  1126. Revoking
  1127. Rewarded
  1128. Rice
  1129. Right
  1130. Rightfully
  1131. Rights
  1132. Rise
  1133. Robbery
  1134. Ruined
  1135. Rules
  1136. Rupee
  1137. Rupees
  1138. Said
  1139. Sail
  1140. Sailed
  1141. Sailing
  1142. Salary
  1143. Sale
  1144. Saltpetre
  1145. Same
  1146. Sanctioned
  1147. Sanctions
  1148. Sane
  1149. Satisfaction
  1150. Satisfying
  1151. Saves
  1152. Saving
  1153. Saving
  1154. Says
  1155. Scaffolding
  1156. Seas
  1157. Season
  1158. Second
  1159. Secondly
  1160. Section
  1161. Section
  1162. Sections
  1163. Security
  1164. See
  1165. Seeing
  1166. Seem
  1167. Sell
  1168. Sells
  1169. Send
  1170. Sends
  1171. Sense
  1172. Senses
  1173. Sent
  1174. September
  1175. Service
  1176. Services
  1177. Set
  1178. Setting
  1179. Settle
  1180. Settlement
  1181. Seventh
  1182. Several
  1183. Shall
  1184. Shares
  1185. Sharing
  1186. She
  1187. Ship
  1188. Ship
  1189. Short
  1190. Should
  1191. Show
  1192. Signed
  1193. Signified
  1194. Signifies
  1195. Signs
  1196. Silence
  1197. Similar
  1198. Simultaneously
  1199. Sing
  1200. Sing
  1201. Singer
  1202. Single
  1203. Sings
  1204. Sinks
  1205. Situated
  1206. Smuggled
  1207. So
  1208. Sold
  1209. Some
  1210. Something
  1211. Son
  1212. Soon
  1213. Sound
  1214. Space
  1215. Speaks
  1216. Specially
  1217. Specific
  1218. Specified
  1219. Speech
  1220. Standing
  1221. Stands
  1222. Start
  1223. Starting
  1224. State
  1225. Stated
  1226. Statute
  1227. Still
  1228. Stipulated
  1229. Stipulates
  1230. Stipulation
  1231. Stock
  1232. stock-in-trade
  1233. Stopped
  1234. Straight
  1235. Stringency
  1236. Stun
  1237. Subject
  1238. Subject
  1239. subject matter
  1240. Subscribe
  1241. Subscription
  1242. SubSection
  1243. Subsisting
  1244. Substance
  1245. Substitute
  1246. Succeed
  1247. Such
  1248. Sues
  1249. Suffers
  1250. Sufficient
  1251. Suggestion
  1252. Suit
  1253. Suitable
  1254. Suited
  1255. Sum
  1256. Sums
  1257. Sung
  1258. Sunk
  1259. Superintend
  1260. Suplies
  1261. Supplied
  1262. Supplies
  1263. Supply
  1264. Supplying
  1265. Support
  1266. Supposed
  1267. Sureties
  1268. Surety
  1269. Surgeon
  1270. Survives
  1271. Survivor
  1272. Survivors
  1273. Sustain
  1274. Sustained
  1275. Sustains
  1276. Sydney
  1277. Take
  1278. Taken
  1279. Taken
  1280. Takes
  1281. Telegram
  1282. Telegram
  1283. Tell
  1284. Telling
  1285. Temporarily
  1286. Tendered
  1287. Termination
  1288. Terms
  1289. Than
  1290. That
  1291. The
  1292. Theatre
  1293. Theatre
  1294. Their
  1295. Them
  1296. Them
  1297. Then
  1298. Thenceforth
  1299. There
  1300. Thereby
  1301. Thereby
  1302. Therefore
  1303. Therein
  1304. Thereof
  1305. Thereto
  1306. Thereunder
  1307. Thereupon
  1308. Therewith
  1309. These
  1310. They
  1311. Thing
  1312. Things
  1313. Thinks
  1314. Third
  1315. This
  1316. Those
  1317. Though
  1318. Thousand
  1319. Thousand
  1320. Threatening
  1321. Through
  1322. Thus
  1323. Till
  1324. Timber
  1325. Time
  1326. Title
  1327. Together
  1328. Totally
  1329. Toward
  1330. Trade
  1331. Traders
  1332. Tradesman
  1333. Traffic
  1334. Transaction
  1335. Transfer
  1336. Transferred
  1337. Transmission
  1338. Treasure
  1339. Treats
  1340. Trouble
  1341. True
  1342. True
  1343. Truth
  1344. Turns
  1345. Unable
  1346. Uncertain
  1347. Uncertainty
  1348. Unconditional
  1349. Unconscionable
  1350. Under
  1351. Understand
  1352. Understanding
  1353. Undertake
  1354. Undertaken
  1355. Undertakes
  1356. UnderValue
  1357. Undue
  1358. Undue
  1359. Unfair
  1360. Unlawful
  1361. Unlawful
  1362. Unlawful—
  1363. Unless
  1364. Unless
  1365. Unless—
  1366. Unqualified
  1367. Unreasonable
  1368. Unreasonably
  1369. Unsound
  1370. Unsound
  1371. Unsoundness
  1372. Unspecified
  1373. Until
  1374. Unusually
  1375. Up
  1376. Upon
  1377. Upto
  1378. Upwards
  1379. Usage
  1380. Use
  1381. Used
  1382. Uses
  1383. Usual
  1384. Usually
  1385. Valid
  1386. Validity
  1387. Value
  1388. Vessel
  1389. View
  1390. Village
  1391. Viodable
  1392. Void
  1393. Voidability
  1394. Voidable
  1395. Voidable
  1396. Voluntarily
  1397. Voyage
  1398. Wager
  1399. Want
  1400. War
  1401. Warehouse
  1402. Warranted
  1403. Warranting
  1404. Warranty
  1405. Warranty
  1406. Was
  1407. Way
  1408. Week
  1409. Week
  1410. Were
  1411. What
  1412. What
  1413. Whatever
  1414. When
  1415. Where
  1416. Whereas
  1417. Whereby
  1418. Whether
  1419. Which
  1420. Whilst
  1421. White
  1422. Who
  1423. Whole
  1424. Whole
  1425. Wholly
  1426. Whom
  1427. Whose
  1428. Wife
  1429. Wilfully
  1430. Will
  1431. Willing
  1432. Willingness
  1433. Winner
  1434. Winners
  1435. With
  1436. Within
  1437. Without
  1438. Witnesses
  1439. Won
  1440. Words
  1441. Work
  1442. Work
  1443. Working
  1444. Worth
  1445. Would
  1446. Wrecked
  1447. Writes
  1448. Writing
  1449. Written
  1450. Wrongfully
  1451. Year
  1452. Yearly
  1453. Zamindar

 

What makes an agreement, which is otherwise legal, void is that its performance is impossible except by disobedience of law.

In Shri Lachoo Mal v. Shri Radhey Shyam, (1971) 1 SCC 619 this Court while deciding whether an agreement was void and not enforceable under Section 23 of the Indian Contact Act held:

What makes an agreement, which is otherwise legal, void is that its performance is impossible except by disobedience of law. Clearly no question of illegality can arise unless the performance of the unlawful act was necessarily the effect of an agreement.

We are, therefore, of the opinion that unless the effect of an agreement results in performance of an unlawful act, an agreement which is otherwise legal cannot be held to be void and if the effect of an agreement did not result in performance of an unlawful act, as a matter of public policy, the court should refuse to declare the CONTRACT void with a view to save the bargain entered into by the parties and the solemn promises made there under. As has been observed by Lord Wright in Vita Food Products Incorporated v. Unus Company Ltd. (in liquidation) (1939) AC 277 at p. 293):

Nor must it be forgotten that the rule by which CONTRACTs not expressly forbidden by statute or declared to be void are in proper cases nullified for disobedience to a statute is a rule of public policy only, and public policy understood in a wider sense may at times be better served by refusing to nullify a bargain save on serious and sufficient grounds.

Digest Indian Contract Act

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