World Political Documents

WORLD POLITICAL DOCUMENTS
  • ‘Appeal to the Soviet people’ of the State Committee for the State of Emergency in the USSR-18/08/1991 - Taking advantage of the freedoms granted, trampling on the sprouts of democracy that had just appeared, extremist forces arose that took a course towards the elimination of the Soviet Union, the collapse of the state and the seizure of power at any cost. The results of a national referendum on the unity of the Fatherland have been trampled underfoot. Cynical speculation on national feelings is just a screen for satisfying ambitions. Neither the troubles of their peoples today, nor their tomorrow, bother political adventurers.
  • Address at the First Zionist Congress -Max Nordau-1897 - The Western Jew has bread, but man does not live on bread alone. The life of the Western Jew is no longer endangered through the enmity of the mob; but bodily wounds are not the only wounds that cause pain, and from which one may bleed to death. The Western Jew meant emancipation to be real liberation, and hastened to draw the final conclusions therefrom. But the nations made him fear that he erred in being so heedlessly logical.
  • Address by Mohan Bhagwat on the occasion of Vijayadashami-2020 - When Sangh says Hindusthan is Hindu Rashtra it does not have any political or power centered concept in its mind. Hindutva is the essence of this Rashtra’s ‘Swa’(self-hood). We are plainly acknowledging the selfhood of the country as Hindu because all our socio-cultural practices are directed by its principles with their spirit percolating in the personal, familial, professional and social life of each one of us.
  • Anuchched 370 aar BJP: Harkishan Singh Surjeet - অনুচ্ছেদ ৩৭০ আর বিজেপি [২০০৫]: কমরেড হরকিষেণ সিং সুরজিৎ Anuchched-370-aar-BJP হরকিষেণ সিং সুরজিৎ Harkishan Singh Surjeet .   
  • Assessing Saudi Government’s Role in Killing of Jamal Khashoggi – 2021 - We have high confidence that the following individuals participated in, ordered, or were otherwise complicit in or responsible for the death of Jamal Khashoggi on behalf of Muhammad bin Salman. We do not know whether these individuals knew in advance that the operation would result in Khashoggi’s death.
  • দিল্লী চলো-সুভাষচন্দ্র বসু – Dilli Cholo by Subhas Chandra Bose - আমি তোমাদের কর্ত্তব্য স্মরণ করিয়ে দিচ্ছি,—সে কর্ত্তব্য দ্বিবিধ। অস্ত্রবলের দ্বারা এবং নিজেদের শোণিতোৎসর্গ করে ভারতের স্বাধীনতা অর্জ্জন করতে হবে। তারপর ভারত যখন স্বাধীন হবে, তখন স্বাধীন ভারতের জন্যে স্থায়ী সেনাবাহিনী গড়ে তুলবে তোমরাই। তখন কর্ত্তব্য হবে ভারতের স্বাধীনতা রক্ষা করা। তোমরা আমাদের দেশরক্ষার শক্তি এমন অটল ভিত্তির উপর স্থাপন করবে যেন আর কোনদিন, আমরা স্বাধীনতা না হারাই। সৈনিক হিসাবে তোমাদের তিনটি আদর্শ হৃদয়ে পোষণ করতে হবে এবং তদনুযায়ী নিজেদের জীবন পরিচালিত করতে হবে।
  • Balfour Declaration [1917] - Foreign Office November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild, I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the…
  • Banaras Hindu University Inaugural Speech by Mohandas K. Gandhi-1916 - I visited the Vishwanath temple last evening, and I was walking through those lanes, these were the thoughts that touched me. If a stranger dropped from above on to this great temple, and he had to consider what we as Hindus were, would he not be justified in condemning us? Is not this great temple a reflection of our own character? I speak feelingly, as a Hindu. Is it right that the lanes of our sacred temple should be as dirty as they are? The houses round about are built anyhow. The lanes are tortuous and narrow. If even our temples are not models of roominess and cleanliness, what can our self-government be? Shall our temples be abodes of holiness, cleanliness and peace as soon as the English have retired from India, either of their own pleasure or by compulsion, bag and baggage?
  • Bihar Bidhan Sabha Election Results- Nov 2020 - Defying the exit polls and surmounting anti-incumbency, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), led by Nitish Kumar's Janata Dal (United), is back in power in Bihar with a slender majority. The ruling coalition won 125 seats in the 243-member state Assembly. The Rashtriya Janata Dal-led Mahagathbandhan clinched 110.
  • Bulgarian Declaration of Independence (1908) - In accordance with the will of the unforgettable Tsar Liberator, on 19 February 1878 the great Russian people, who are for us like brothers, with the assistance of our good neighbors, subjects to His Majesty the King of Romania, and of the brave heroic Bulgarians, broke the chains which had tied Bulgaria, once so great and glorious, as a slave for so many centuries.
  • Burial of Tipu sultan in a dreadful night: The day of Judgment - A fearful description of the Day of Judgement might have been depicted from the appalling storm of this awful night. I have experienced hurricanes, typhoons, and gales of wind at sea, but never in the whole course of my existence had I seen anything comparable to this desolating visitation. Heaven and earth appeared absolutely to have come in collision, and no bounds set to the destruction.
  • Cabinet Structure of Clement Attlee’s labour Govt-1945 - With a landslide of 395 seats compared to only 197 for the Conservatives and 12 for the Liberals, the Labour Party was given a massive mandate to govern Britain. Labour aimed to rebuild the country through a combination of tight controls on resources and nationalisation of industries.
  • Cadres are the backbone of Revolution: Ernesto Che Guevara 1962 - The cadre has the important mission of seeing to it that the great spirit of the revolution is not dissipated, that it will not become dormant nor let up its rhythm. It is a sensitive position; it transmits what comes from the masses and infuses in the masses the orientation of the party.
  • CAPITULARY OF CHARLEMAGNE -Charlemagne 802 - CAPITULARY OF CHARLEMAGNE ISSUED IN THE YEAR 802CE (From “Mon. Germ, hist.” [Quarto Series] LL. II., p. 91-99; also to be found in “Altmann u. Bernheim,” p. 4.) CHAPTER I. CONCERNING THE EMBASSY SENT OUT BY THE LORD EMPEROR. The…
  • CAPITULARY(Decree) OF CHARLEMAGNE : Carolingian law 802 CE - The most serene and most Christian emperor Charles did choose from among his nobles the most prudent and the wisest men — archbishops as well as other bishops, and venerable abbots, and pious laymen — and did send them over his whole kingdom; and did grant through them, by means of all the following provisions, that men should live according to law and right.
  • Caste and Congress are closely linked- B.R. Ambedkar-1954 - The Congress always wins, so it is found. But no one asks why does the Congress win ? The answer is that Congress is very popular. But why is the Congress popular ? The true answer is that Congress always puts up candidates which belong to castes which are in the majority in the constituencies. Caste and Congress are closely linked. It is by exploiting the caste system that the Congress wins.
  • Charter of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) – 1981 - Charter of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) COOPERATION COUNCIL FOR THE ARAB STATES OF THE GULF The United Arab Emirates The State of Bahrain The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Sultanate of Oman The State of Qatar, and The State…
  • Chen Yi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto conversation focusing Soviet Union’s foreign policy regarding India-25/02/1964 - The Soviet Union has greatly encouraged India’s great power chauvinism. Khrushchev supports Nehru on disarmament, economics, and in the United Nations, makes it seem as though India is neutral and that it would be inappropriate for it to lean toward any country.
  • Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech- 05/03/1946 - lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 1787 - Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our…
  • Continental Association  1774  - A compact made by the American colonies to impose economic sanctions against Great Britain.   Thursday, October 20, 1774.   The Association being copied, was read, and signed at the table, and is as follows: We, his Majesty’s most loyal…
  • Conversation between I. V. Stalin and Indian Communist Party-09/02/1951 - This is a bourgeois-democratic revolution or the first stage of a people’s democratic revolution. The people’s democratic revolution which started before China in the countries of Eastern Europe has two stages. The first stage is an agrarian revolution or agrarian reform, if you wish. The countries of the people’s democracies in Eastern Europe went through this stage in the first year after the war. China is in this first stage right now. India is approaching this stage. The second stage of a people’s democratic revolution, as it has manifested itself in Eastern Europe, consists of moving from an agrarian revolution to the expropriation of the national bourgeoisie.
  • Conversation between I. V. Stalin and S. Radhakrishnan-15/01/1950 - The Ambassador affirmed India's anxiety to do everything possible to work for peace, which was essential for building up the country and improving living standards. India's policy of neutrality was real and positive, and in Colombo, Pandit Nehru had reaffirmed India's anxiety to avoid cold war tactics and anti-communist pacts. Stalin said he did NOT hear about it, but seemed to approve.
  • Declaration of Independence – Republic of Estonia  - An unprecedented struggle of nations has destroyed the rotten foundations of the Russian Tsarist Empire. All over the Sarmatian plains ruinous anarchy is spreading, threatening to overwhelm in its wake all peoples living within the borders of the former Russian Empire. From the West the victorious armies of Germany are approaching in order to claim their share of Russia's legacy and, above all, to take possession of the coastal territories of the Baltic Sea.
  • Declaration of Israel’s Independence 1948 - Declaration of Israel’s Independence 1948 Issued at: Tel Aviv Date:  May 14, 1948 (5th of Iyar, 5708) ERETZ-ISRAEL (Hebrew) – The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped.…
  • Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On the procedure for organizing and holding meetings, rallies, street marches and demonstrations in the USSR”- 28/07/1988 - The Constitution of the USSR, in accordance with the interests of the people and in order to strengthen and develop the socialist system, guarantees the citizens of the USSR freedom of assembly, rallies, street processions and demonstrations. The exercise of these political freedoms is ensured by the provision of public buildings, streets, squares and other places to workers and their organizations.
  • Democratic Party Platform 2016  - Under President Obama's leadership, and thanks to the hard work and determination of the American people, we have come a long way from the Great Recession and the Republican policies that triggered it. American businesses have now added 14.8 million jobs since private-sector job growth turned positive in early 2010. Twenty million people have gained health insurance coverage.
  • Diplomatic relations between KGB and Vatican City from 1960s – 1980s. - Vatican City officials were interested in establishing strong positions in the Soviet government for religious institutions. Mitrokhin states that during this period of time the KGB administration thought of Vatican City as one of the most crucial strategic locations in the world to monitor because officials there were actively promoting the importance of religion in the Soviet Union.
  • Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith[1847] - Works of Frederick Engels 1847 Question 1: Are you a Communist? Answer: Yes. Question 2: What is the aim of the Communists? Answer: To organise society in such a way that every member of it can develop and use all…
  • Emergency in India Entering New Phase – 1975 - On the muggy morning of June 26, when policemen all over the country began rounding up thousands of anti‐Government figures in predawn raids and holding them without formal charges, there was what an Opposition member of parliament describes as “shock and surprise—the feeling you might have if your 6‐year‐old son suddenly slapped you in the face.
  • Emperor K’ang Hsi: The Sacred Edicts (1670) - In 1670, when the K'ang Hsi emperor was sixteen years old, he issued a list of sixteen principles that briefly illustrate how he expected his subjects to conduct themselves in order to ensure their goodness, happiness and prosperity. These so_called "Sacred Edicts" were to be read aloud twice a month in every village and town of the empire. Both the literati and the common people were expected to attend these lectures. The practice of "expounding the Sacred Edicts" was still in use after 1900, yet it was observed that only those that had to attend would be present.
  • Explosion first nuclear bomb by China will alter the political balance of Asia: K.R. Narayanan-24/12/1964 - In the hands of a militant Communist power like China the atom bomb has a special revolutionary significance. Its political impact is distinctly different from that of the French or the British bomb. The Chinese have presented their bomb as a direct challenge to American and ‘imperialist’ power and as a great encouragement to the revolutionary peoples of the world in their struggles.
  • For Rights of Bengali Refugees: Party Congress demands a suitable amendment in Clause 2 (i) (b) of the Citizenship Act in relation to Bangladesh minority community refugees. - This Party Congress demands a suitable amendment in Clause 2 (i) (b) of the said Citizenship Act in relation to the Bangladesh minority community refugees.
  • Frederick Engels’ Speech at the Grave of Karl Marx [1883] - Highgate Cemetery, London. March 17, 1883 On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back…
  • Gettysburg Address – Remarks by Abraham Lincoln- 07/07/1863 - President Abraham Lincoln made these informal remarks a few days after two important Union victories. Earlier that day he received General Grant's dispatch announcing the capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Later on he appeared dejected during a Cabinet meeting because General Meade failed to pursue Lee after the battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln's audience this evening was a crowd outside the White House, accompanied by a band.
  • Government of India-Thomas Babington Macaulay-10/07/1833 - "Government of India"- A SPEECH DELIVERED IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS ON THE 10TH OF JULY 1833-by Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859)-I am naturally desirous to obtain the attention of the House while I attempt to defend the principles of the proposed arrangement. I wish that I could promise to be very brief; but the subject is so extensive that I will only promise to condense what I have to say as much as I can.
  • Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) Covenant 1988 - Hamas Covenant 1988 The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement 18 August 1988 In The Name Of The Most Merciful Allah “Ye are the best nation that hath been raised up unto mankind: ye command that which is just, and…
  • Ho Chi Minh’s Instructions At The Conference Reviewing Mass Education – 1956 - In social life there are many professions, a division of work is therefore inevitable. I do one work, you take up another. Mass education work is an important one, having a great bearing on the nation and society, and also on the building of our Fatherland.
  • Holocaust as Suicidal Enterprise - The Holocaust as Suicidal Enterprise   by Ludo Abicht In her autobiographical work Dies ist nicht mein Land — Eine Jüdin verlässt die Bundesrepublik,[1] Lea Fleischmann describes a faculty meeting at the high school where she was teaching. A colleague…
  • INDIA (TRANSFER OF POWER)-1947 - The Prime Minister (Mr. Attlee) I desire to make an important statement on Indian policy. A similar statement is being made at the same time in another place, and by the Viceroy in New Delhi. The statement, in the form of a White Paper, will be available this afternoon.
  • India’s Complaint to the Security Council on the tribal invasion of J&K-01/01/1948 - On 26 October, the ruler of the State, His Highness Maharaja Sir Hari Singh, appealed urgently to the Government of India for military help. He also requested that the Jammu and Kashmir State should be allowed to accede to the Indian Dominion. An appeal for help was also simultaneously received by the Government of India from the largest popular organization in Kashmir, the National Conference, headed by Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah. The Conference further strongly supported the request for the State's accession to the Indian Dominion. The Government of India were thus approached not only officially by the State authorities, but also on behalf of the people of Kashmir, both for military aid and for the accession of the State to India.
  • INDIA: STATEMENT BY THE CABINET MISSION-1946 - INDIA: STATEMENT BY THE CABINET MISSION UK Parliament HL Deb 16 May 1946 vol 141 cc271-87 THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DOMINION AFFAIRS (VISCOUNT ADDISON)  My Lords, I would ask your Lordships’ permission to make a statement on India. In…
  • INDIAN INDEPENDENCE BILL- 1947 - In this Bill, we set up two independent Dominions, free and equal, of no less status than the United Kingdom or the Dominion of Canada, completely free in all respects from any control by this country, but united by a common allegiance to the Sovereign and by a community of ideas, receiving from their membership of the Commonwealth great advantages, but in no way suffering any restriction.
  • Indian National Congress Resolution (1940)- Congress strongly disapproves of Indian troops being made to fight for Great Britain - The Congress therefore strongly disapproves of Indian troops being made to fight for Great Britain and of the drain from India of men and material for the purpose of the War. Neither the recruiting nor the money raised in India can be considered to be voluntary contributions from India. Congressmen, and those under the Congress influence, cannot help in the prosecution of the war with men, money or material.
  • Indian PM Modi`s speech at Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Summit 2020 - SCO में भारत के लिए यह एक महत्वपूर्ण वर्ष है। हम पहली बार एक Summit स्तर की बैठक SCO Council of Heads of Government का आयोजन करने जा रहे हैं। इस बैठक के लिए एक व्यापक एजेंडा तैयार किया गया है, जिसमें आर्थिक सहयोग के मुद्दों पर विशेष ध्यान दिया गया है। हमने स्टार्टअप इकोसिस्टम में अपने समृद्ध अनुभव को साझा करने के लिए Innovation and Startups पर Special Working Group की स्थापना का प्रस्ताव रखा है। हमने Traditional Medicine पर Working Group का भी प्रस्ताव रखा है, ताकि SCO देशों में पारंपरिक और प्राचीन चिकित्सा के ज्ञान और समकालीन चिकित्सा में हो रही प्रगति एक दूसरे के पूरक बन सकें।
  • Indian to collect and cremate dead bodies of their soldiers from China: Indo-sino war Docs-1962 - Report on the request of the Indian Red Cross to collect and cremate the bodies of their soldiers in accordance with Indian customs. The Chinese Red Cross agreed to carry out the cremation.
  • Instructions to Military Officials by Khalifa Sirajuddin Haqqani,Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan - In the current sensitive situation and continuous series of conquests, district and provincial governors should pay attention to the instructions of esteemed Amir ul-Momineen, Maulvi Sahib and the officials of the Military Commission as they counsel you to not act cruel or be arrogant.
  • Irish Declaration of Independence-1919 - And Whereas the Irish people is resolved to secure and maintain its complete independence in order to promote the common weal, to re-establish justice, to provide for future defence, to insure peace at home and goodwill with all nations and to constitute a national polity based upon the people's will with equal right and equal opportunity for every citizen:
  • Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Decreed to release political prisoners from all prisons in Afghanistan - The Supreme Leader of the Islamic Emirate, Sheikh Al-Hadith Hibaullah Akhundzada(Hafizullah) has ordered the release of political prisoners from all prisons in the country.
  • J. V. Stalin’s last speech at 19th Party Congress of the C.P.S.U -14/10/1952 - Earlier, the bourgeoisie presented themselves as liberal, they were for bourgeois democratic freedom and in that way gained popularity with the people. Now there is not one remaining trace of liberalism. There is no such thing as "freedom of personality" any more, - personal rights are now only acknowledged by them, the owners of capital, - all the other citizens are regarded as raw materials, that are only for exploitation.
  • Joining protocol of Greece and Turkey with NATO – 22/10/1951 - Upon the entry into force of this Protocol, the Government of the United States of America shall, on behalf of all the Parties, communicate to the Government of the Kingdom of Greece and the Government of the Republic of Turkey an invitation to accede to the North Atlantic Treaty, as it may be modified by Article 2 of the present Protocol. Thereafter the Kingdom of Greece and the Republic of Turkey shall each become a Party on the date when it deposits its instruments of accession with the Government of the United States of America in accordance with Article 10 of the Treaty.
  • Joint Statement of the United States, the State of Israel, and the United Arab Emirates-FULL TEXT - President Donald Trump, accompanied by (From left), U.S. special envoy for Iran Brian Hook, Avraham Berkowitz, Assistant to the President and Special Representative for International Negotiations, U.S. Ambassador to Israel David Friedman, President Donald Trump's White House senior adviser Jared Kushner, and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, applaud in the Oval Office at the White House, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2020, in Washington. Trump said on Thursday that the United Arab Emirates and Israel have agreed to establish full diplomatic ties.
  • Joint Statement of UK PM Boris Johnson and EU Commission President von der Leyen: 7/12/2020 - As agreed on Saturday, we took stock today of the ongoing negotiations. We agreed that the conditions for finalizing an agreement are not there due to the remaining significant differences on three critical issues: level playing field, governance and fisheries.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact- 1928 - The High Contracting Parties solemly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.
  • Khrushchev and Mao conversation on political situations in Tibet, India, Indochina and Taiwan-02/10/1959 - Nepal wanted to have a Soviet ambassador, but we did not send there for a long time. You did the same. This is because Nehru did not want that Soviet and Chinese ambassadors were there. This should not come as a surprise - nothing else can be expected from Nehru. But this should not be a grounds for us for breaking off the relations.
  • L.D. Kislova’s diary entry: a conversation with Indira Gandhi, daughter of PM Nehru, at Leningrad-01/08/1953 - I. Gandhi said that in India, in her opinion, at the present time, there is no one who could replace Nehru and continue his democratic reforms. “Without Father,” noted I. Gandhi, “all that has been done will turn to dust.”
  • Labour Party Election Manifesto:1950  - Let Us Win Through Together: A Declaration of Labour Policy for the Consideration of the Nation When the Labour Party published Let Us Face the Future in 1945 those five words were more than the title of the Election Manifesto;…
  • Labour Party General Election Manifesto:1935  - The Labour Party’s call to power Four years have passed since the ‘National’ Government obtained a swollen majority in the House of Commons on a campaign of fraud, misrepresentation and panic. The Government has now decided to plunge the nation…
  • Law About the Constitution of the German Evangelical Church-1933 - For the German Evangelical Church, a constitution has been provided on 11 July 1933 that is, with the implementation ordinance, acknowledged by the Empire and published in the appendix.
  • Lenin’s Testament: He asked to remove Stalin as GS was rejected by 13th Congress of the CPSU - a political document of tremendous importance, known in the Party history as Lenin’s Testament. Vladimir Ilyich said; ‘I propose that the comrades consider the method by which Stalin would be removed from this position (of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union). ‘ N.S. Khrushchev, Secret Speech to 20th Congress CPSU, in Russian Institute, Columbia University (Ed.), ‘The Anti-Stalin Campaign and International Communism; A Selection of Documents’, New York, 1956, p6, 7.
  • Letter from Jinnah to Stafford Cripps communicating demand of Muslim League-09/02/1946 - A caretaker government already exists under the framework of the present Constitution viz. The Governor-General’s Executive Council, and there is no need to tinker with it under the new phraseology of “political Executive Council”. Equally, the idea of a single Constitution-making body is fundamentally opposed to the basic principles that the Muslim League has declared times out of number.
  • Letter of Aurungzebe to his his father Shaw Jehaun - Your humble disciple hath already repeatedly declared to your august audience, that my object in marching towards Agra was not rebellion, or to depose the Emperor of Islam. The Penetrator of all secrets is my witness, that this unworthy and unlawful idea had never glanced on the mirror of my heart.
  • Letter of Frederick II king of Jerusalem and Sicily to Henry III king of the English - Frederick II Frederic, by the grace of God, the august emperor of the Romans, king of Jerusalem and Sicily, to his well-beloved friend, Henry, king of the English, health and sincere affection. Let all rejoice and exult in the Lord,…
  • Letter to Imam al-Husayn and His reply to the people of Kufa-680 CE - Now, I send my brother, my cousin and a reliable person in my relatives to you. If he writes that the opinions of most of you and your wise and elder ones is in agreement with what your messengers inform about and I read in your letters, I will soon come to you by the will of God; for I swear by my soul that Imam (a) is not anyone but one who rules according to the Book of God, rises to justice, observes the religion of truth and commits himself to what God has said and ordered.
  • Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address[USA 1861] - March 4, 1861 Fellow citizens of the United States: In compliance with a custom as old as the government itself, I appear before you to address you briefly, and to take, in your presence, the oath prescribed by the Constitution…
  • Louisiana Purchase Treaty (1803) - The Louisiana Purchase Agreement is made up of the Treaty of Cession and the two conventions regarding the financial aspects of the transaction.
  • MAGNA CARTA-1215 - Magna Carta is often thought of as the corner-stone of liberty and the chief defence against arbitrary and unjust rule in England. In fact it contains few sweeping statements of principle, but is a series of concessions wrung from the unwilling King John by his rebellious barons in 1215. However, Magna Carta established for the first time a very significant constitutional principle: that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
  • Major Allan’s Account of finding the dead body of Tippoo Sultan-1799 - Tippoo was of low stature, corpulent, with high shoulders, and a short thick neck, but his feet were remarkably small; his complexion was rather dark; his eyes large and prominent, with small arched eyebrows, and his nose aquiline: he had an appearance of dignity, or perhaps sternness, in his countenance, which distinguished him above the common order people
  • Manifesto of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army- Mao Tse-tung- 2/10/1947 - In order to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek and form a democratic coalition government at an early date, we call on the people in the Liberated Areas to carry through the land reform, consolidate the foundations of democracy, develop production, practice economy, strengthen the people's armed forces, eliminate the remaining strongholds of the enemy and support the fighting at the front.
  • Manifesto of the Communist Party - Contents Preamble I: Bourgeois and Proletarians II: Proletarians and Communists III: Socialist and Communist Literature IV: Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism. All the…
  • Manifesto of the Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM)-Pakistan - THE IDEOLOGY OF MUTTAHIDA QUAMI MOVEMENT (MQM) Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM) believes in Realism and Practicalism. Acceptance of reality with an open heart is Realism, a concept based upon the philosophy of its Founder and Leader Mr. Altaf Hussain. Based…
  • Mao Tse Tung on Communist Party - The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party. The theoretical basis guiding our thinking is Marxism-Leninism.
  • Mao Tse Tung on Culture and Art - An army without culture is a dull-witted army, and a dull-witted army cannot defeat the enemy.
  • Mao Tse Tung on Study - The theory of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin is universally applicable. We should regard it not as a dogma, but as a guide to action and studying their standpoint and method in examining and solving problems
  • Mao Zedong On Coalition Government-24/04/1945 - In the eight years of the War of Resistance Against Japan, the Communist Party of China has overcome many difficulties and achieved great successes, but as things stand serious difficulties still confront our Party and people. The present situation demands that our Party should work still more solidly and intensively and that it should continue to overcome the difficulties and strive to fulfil the fundamental demands of the Chinese people.
  • Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream Speech”[1963] - August 28, 1963 I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic…
  • Mayflower Compact-1620 - for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honour of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civill body politick,
  • Md Iqbal’s Presidential Address to 25th Session of All-India Muslim League Allahabad- 29/12/1930 - The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified. The resolution of the All-Parties Muslim Conference at Delhi is, to my mind, wholly inspired by this noble ideal of a harmonious whole which, instead of stifling the respective individualities of its component wholes, affords them chances of fully working out the possibilities that may be latent in them. And I have no doubt that this House will emphatically endorse the Muslim demands embodied in this resolution.
  • Mein Kampf (My Struggle) by Adolf Hitler-1925 - If, in the world of our present parliamentary corruption, it becomes more and more aware of the profoundest essence of its struggle, feels itself to be the purest embodiment of the value of race and personality and conducts itself accordingly, it will with almost mathematical certainty some day emerge victorious from its struggle. Just as Germany must inevitably win her rightful position on this earth if she is led and organized according to the same principles.
  • Memo Political situation in Jordan following King Abdullah’s assassination-21/04/1955 - DATE: 21/04/1955 The situation in Jordan Before detailing the events that took and are taking place in Jordan, it is necessary to look at the various elements that make up the Jordanian people. Before separating from Syria, Jordan, like Hauran,…
  • Minutes of Mao Zedon’s First Meeting with Nehru-19/10/1954 - Asia is a big continent, and there are several big countries in Asia. China is the largest, and there are also some smaller countries. We are all under the influence of our different history. But we have a common experience, that is, we all have suffered from foreign rule. We have many things in common, and this is not just because of the connection of the past. This is also because we suffered from colonial rule in modern times, although we have had different developments in many aspects.
  • MK Gandhi on Kashmir Issue : Speech at the Prayer Meeting on 4th January 1948 - The matter is now before the UNO. It cannot be withdrawn from there. But if India and Pakistan come to a settlement the big powers in the UNO will have to endorse that settlement. They will not object to the settlement. They themselves can only say that they will do their best to see that the two countries arrive at an understanding through mutual discussions.
  • My Political Testament: Adolf Hitler 1945 - That from the bottom of my heart I express my thanks to you all, is just as self-evident as my wish that you should, because of that, on no account give up the struggle but rather continue it against the enemies of the Fatherland, no matter where, true to the creed of a great Clausewitz. From the sacrifice of our soldiers and from my own unity with them unto death, will in any case spring up in the history of Germany, the seed of a radiant renaissance of the National-Socialist movement and thus of the realization of a true community of nations.
  • Naxalbari Manifesto: Long Live Heroic Peasants – By Charu Mazumdar-14/07/1971 - Naxalbari lives and will live. This is because it is based on invincible Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought. We know that as we move forward we shall face many obstacles, many difficulties, many acts of betrayal and there will be many setbacks. But Naxalbari will not die because the bright sunlight of Chairman Mao's Thought has fallen on it like a blessing.
  • NEHRU-LIAQUAT PACT 1950 - The Governments of India and Pakistan solemnly agree that each shall ensure, to the minorities throughout its territory, complete equality of citizenship, irrespective of religion, a full sense of security in respect of life, culture, property and personal honour, freedom of movement within each country and freedom of occupation, speech and worship, subject to law and morality.
  • Nixon Announcement of China Visit (1971) - Good evening: I have requested this television time tonight to announce a major development in our efforts to build a lasting peace in the world. As I have pointed out on a number of occasions over the past 3 years,…
  • North Atlantic Treaty-04/04/1949 - The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.
  • Note to Heads of Belligerent Peoples-Benedict XV (01/08/1922) - The material force of arms should be substituted the moral force of law; hence a just agreement by all for the simultaneous and reciprocal reduction of armaments, according to rules and guarantees to be established to the degree that is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of public order in each State; then, instead of arms, the institution of arbitration, with its lofty peacemaking function, according to standards to be agreed upon, with sanctions to be decided against a State which refuses either to submit international questions to arbitration or to accept the decisions of such arbitration.
  • On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences-Khrushchev(1956) - During Lenin's life the central committee of the party- was a real expression of collective leadership of the party and of the Nation. Being a militant Marxist-revolutionist, always unyielding in matters of principle, Lenin never imposed by force his views upon his coworkers. He tried to convince; he patiently explained his opinions to others. Lenin always diligently observed that the norms of party life were realized, that the party statute was enforced, that the party congresses and the plenary sessions of the central committee took place at the proper intervals.
  • On The Jewish Question [1844] - I Bruno Bauer, The Jewish Question, Braunschweig, 1843 The German Jews desire emancipation. What kind of emancipation do they desire? Civic, political emancipation. Bruno Bauer replies to them: No one in Germany is politically emancipated. We ourselves are not free. How are…
  • Our Programme: V.I. Lenin 1899 - We have already said that the essence of this programme consists in the organisation of the class struggle of the proletariat and in carrying on this struggle, the final aim of which is the seizure of political power by the proletariat and the construction of a socialist society. The class struggle of the proletariat is divided into: the economic fight  and the political fight 
  • Outline of a New Constitution by B.N. Rau-1946  - Each of the Federations shall be an independent sovereign State whose boundaries and whose relations with the other members of the Commonwealth in regard to matters of mutual interest such as defence, external affairs, communications and customs shall have been previously defined by agreement or with the aid of agreed machinery as hereinafter provided.
  • Pakistan Declaration:The idea of the creation of a Muslim state in the Indian - It is preposterous to compare, as some superficial observers do, the differences between Muslims and Hindus with those between Roman Catholics and Protestants. Both the Catholics and Protestants are part and parcel of one religious system - Christianity; while the Hindus and Muslims are the followers of two essentially and fundamentally different religious systems.
  • Party Constitution of Communist Party of India (Maoist) - Party Constitution CHAPTER-1: GENERAL PROGRAMME The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is the consolidated political vanguard of the Indian proletariat. Marxism-Leninism-Maoism is the ideological basis guiding its thinking in all the spheres of its activities. Immediate aim or programme of…
  • Pastor Aeternus-Concerning the Infallible Teaching of Pope - We teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in discharge of the office of Pastor and Teacher of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, is, by the divine assistance promised to him in Blessed Peter, possessed of that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed in defining doctrine regarding faith or morals; and that, therefore, such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church, irreformable.
  • Petition from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery[USA 1790] - Signed by Benjamin Franklin, President of the Pennsylvania Society, February 3, 1790 To the Senate & House of Representatives of the United States, The Memorial of the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, the relief of free Negroes unlawfully…
  • Philippine Declaration of Independence-1898 - Because of arbitrary arrests and abuses of the Civil Guards who cause deaths in connivance with and even under the express orders of their superior officers who at times would order the shooting of those placed under arrest under the pretext that they attempted to escape in violation of known Rules and Regulations, which abuses were left unpunished, and because of unjust deportations of illustrious Filipinos, especially those decreed by General Blanco at the instigation of the Archbishop and the friars interested in keeping them in ignorance for egoistic and selfish ends, which deportations were carried out through processes more execrable than those of the Inquisition which every civilized nation repudiates as a trial without hearing,
  • PM Nehru agreed to withdraw of all Indian Military Escorts in Tibet- A Memo-03/10/1953 - They wish to inform the Government of China that, as a gesture of goodwill and friendship, they agree in principle to the withdrawal of all their Military Escorts in Tibet, subject to details of the withdrawal being discussed between the two Governments along with other pending matters.
  • Political and Strategic Documents of China -
  • President Roosevelt’s letter to the German Chancellor Hitler-1938 - The traditional policy of the United States has been the furtherance of the settlement of international disputes by pacific means. It is my conviction that all people under the threat of war today pray that peace may be made before, rather than after, war.
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