Expert Evidence

 

Expert Evidence : General

1.    Relevancy of Expert Evidence
2.    Field of Forensic Necessity for Expert Evidence
3.    Role of Science in the Detection and Proof of Crime
4.    Probative Value of Expert Evidence

Expert Evidence : Medical

5.    Some Legal Aspects of Medical Examination and Chemical Analysis
6.    Cause of Death in cases alleged to be due to Physical Violence
7.    Cause of Death in cases alleged to be due to means other than Physical Violence
8.    Whether Death was accidental, Suicidal or Homicidal
9.    Medical Evidence as the Major Factor in Proof of ‘Mens Rea’
10.  Medical Evidence and legal Insanity
11.  Medical Evidence as a check on other Evidence
12.  Medical Evidence in cases of Hurt, Simple and Grievous
13.  Medical Evidence in Sexual Offences
14.  Medical Evidence in Prohibition Offences
15.  Medical Evidence as to age.
16.  Medical Evidence in disputed Paternity Cases
17.  Medical Evidence in Miscellaneous Matters Arising in Judicial Proceedings
18.  Proof and Probative value of the Government Scientific Experts and Public Analyst
19.  Proof of Medical Data and Opinion
20.  The Jargon of the Medical Witness

Expert Evidence: Non-Medical

21.  Fingerprints
22.  Footprints
23.  Handwriting
24.  Typewriting
25.  Forensic Ballistics
26.  Technique of Anthracene Powder and Ultra Violet Rays

Expert Evidence: Electronics

  1. Computer and cyber expert
  2. Archaeologist


Post Mortem Report


Indian Evidence Act 1873

45. OPINIONS OF EXPERTS—

When the Court has to form an opinion upon a point of foreign law or of science or art, or as to identity of handwriting or finger impressions, the opinions upon that point of persons specially skilled in such foreign law, science or art, or in questions as to identity of handwriting or finger impressions are relevant facts.
Such persons are called experts.

Illustrations

(a)The question is, whether the death of A was caused by poison.
The opinions of experts as to the symptoms produced by the poison by which A is supposed to have died are relevant.

(b)The question is, whether A, at the time of doing a certain act, was, by reason of unsoundness of mind, incapable of knowing the nature of the Act, or that he was doing what was either wrong or contrary to law.

The opinions of experts upon the question whether the symptoms exhibited by A commonly show unsoundness of mind, and whether such unsoundness of mind usually renders persons incapable of knowing the nature of the acts which they do, or of knowing that what they do is either wrong or contrary to law, are relevant.

(c)The question is, whether a certain document was written by A. Another document is produced which is proved or admitted to have been written by A.

The opinions of experts on the question whether the two documents were written by the same person or by different persons, are relevant.

45A. OPINION OF EXAMINER OF ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE—

When in a proceeding, the court has to form an opinion on any matter relating to any information transmitted or stored in any computer resource or any other electronic or digital form, the opinion of the Examiner of Electronic Evidence referred to in section 79A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000) is a relevant fact.
Explanation.— For the purposes of this section, an Examiner of Electronic Evidence shall be an expert;

Illustrations

(a)The question is, whether the death of A was caused by poison.
The opinions of experts as to the symptoms produced by the poison by which A is supposed to have died are relevant.
(b)The question is, whether A, at the time of doing a certain act, was, by reason of unsoundness of mind, incapable of knowing the nature of the Act, or that he was doing what was either wrong or contrary to law.
The opinions of experts upon the question whether the symptoms exhibited by A commonly show unsoundness of mind, and whether such unsoundness of mind usually renders persons incapable of knowing the nature of the acts which they do, or of knowing that what they do is either wrong or contrary to law, are relevant.
(c)The question is, whether a certain document was written by A. Another document is produced which is proved or admitted to have been written by A.
The opinions of experts on the question whether the two documents were written by the same person or by different persons, are relevant.

46. Facts bearing upon opinions of experts

Facts not otherwise relevant, are relevant if they support or are inconsistent with the opinions of experts, when such opinions are relevant.

Illustrations
(a)The question is, whether A was poisoned by a certain poison.
The fact that other persons, who were poisoned by that person, exhibited certain symptoms which experts affirm or deny to be the symptoms of that poison, is relevant.
(b)The question is, whether an obstruction to a harbour is caused by a certain sea-wall.
The fact that other harbours similarly situated in other respects, but where there were no such sea-walls, began to be obstructed at about the same time, is relevant.

47. OPINION AS TO HANDWRITING, WHEN RELEVANT—

When the Court has to form an opinion as to the person by whom any document was written or signed, the opinion of any person acquainted with the handwriting of the person by whom it is supposed to be written or signed that it was or was not written or signed by that person, is a relevant fact.

Explanation.— A person is said to be acquainted with the handwriting of another person when he has seen that person write, or when he has received documents purporting to be written by that person in answer to documents written by himself or under his authority and addressed to that person, or when, in the ordinary course of business, documents purporting to be written by that person have been habitually submitted to him.

Illustration

The question is, whether a given letter is in the underwriting of A, a merchant in London.
B is a merchant in Calcutta, who has written letters addressed to A and received letters purporting to be written by him. C is B’s clerk, whose duty it was to examine and file B’s correspondence. D is B’s broker, to whom B habitually submitted the letters purporting to be written by A for the purpose of advising him thereon.
The opinions of B, C and D on the question whether the letter is in the handwriting of A are relevant, though neither B, C nor D ever saw A write.

47A. OPINION AS TO ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE WHEN RELEVANT — When the Court has to form an opinion as to the electronic signature of any person, the opinion of the Certifying Authority which has issued the Electronic Signature Certificate is a relevant fact.

48. OPINION AS TO EXISTENCE OF RIGHT OR CUSTOM, WHEN RELEVANT— When the Court has to form an opinion as to the existence of any general custom or right, the opinions, as to the existence of such custom or right, of persons who would be likely to know of its existence if it existed, are relevant.

Explanation.— The expression “general custom or right” includes customs or rights common to any considerable class of persons.
Illustration
The right of the villagers of a particular village to use the water of a particular well is a general right within the meaning of this section.

49. Opinions as to usages, tenets, etc., when relevant.—

When the Court has to form an opinion as to—
the usages and tenets of any body of men or family,
the constitution and government of any religious or charitable foundation, or
the meaning of words or terms used in particular districts or by particular classes of people, the opinions of persons having special means of knowledge thereon, are relevant facts.

50. Opinion on relationship, when relevant —

When the Court has to form an opinion as to the relationship of one person to another, the opinion, expressed by conduct, as to the existence of such relationship, or any person who, as a member of the family or otherwise, has special means of knowledge on the subject, is a relevant fact:
Provided that such opinion shall not be sufficient to prove a marriage in proceedings under the Indian Divorce Act, 1869 (4 of 1869) or in prosecutions under section 494, 495, 497 or 498 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

Illustrations

(a)The question is, whether A and B were married.
The fact that they were usually received and treated by their friends as husband and wife, is relevant.
(b)The question is, whether A was the legitimate son of B. The fact that A was always treated as such by members of the family, is relevant.

51. Grounds of opinion, when relevant—

Whenever the opinion of any living person is relevant, the grounds on which such opinion is based are also relevant.

Illustration
An expert may give an account of experiments performed by him for the purpose of forming his opinion.


Order 26 Rule 10 A of Civil Code