THE HISTORY OF BENGAL – R.C. Majumdar and Jadunath Sarkar Vol: I, II and III



The idea of writing a comprehensive History of Bengal on modem scientific lines may be traced back to 1912 when Lord Carmichael,  the first Governor of the Bengal Presidency, took the initiative and invited MM. Haraprasad Sastri to prepare a scheme. It was proposed to publish the history in three volumes dealing respectively with the Hindu, Muslim and British periods. Several meetings were held in the Government House, Calcutta, but what became the result of this plan and how far it was matured are not definitely known,  to me years later, the late Raja Prafulla Nath Tagore, the grandson of the famous Kali Krishna Tagore, volunteered to pay the entire cost of such a publication and invited the late Mr. Rakhaldas Banerji to draw up a plan along with some other well-known scholars of his time. Several meetings were held in the bouse of the Baja, but ultimately nothing came out of it.

Ever since the foundation of the University of Dacca, it was felt that the University should take up the task of preparing a  History of Bengal as early as practicable. This idea received on impetus from Sir Jadunath Sarkar, who, in the course of a lecture delivered at the University about the middle of July 19S3, emphasised  ‘that a History of Bengal on modem scientific lines was long overdue,  and that this University, standing as it does in the very heart of an ancient and important seat of Bengal culture, should in the fitness of things take up the work. Sir Jadunath promised his whole-hearted support and active co-operation in this enterprise.

The scheme received a new impetus from Mr. (now Sir)  A. F. Rahman, when he joined the University as Vice-Chancellor in  July 1934. In his first convocation address next month he emphasised  the need of commencing the work, and in his second convocation
speech, in July 1935, he announced that some preliminary work had already been done.

By the end of August 1935, the scheme took a more definite  shape, as Professor R. C. Majumdar, Head of the Department of  History, who was so busy with his own research
work (m Ae history of Ancient Imfian Colonies in the Far East, was now free to take up the world.

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Land of Two Rivers – A History of Bengal From the Mahabharata to Mujib-Nitish Sengupta

Book excerpt



“This is by far the only book that covers the history of Bengal from the earliest times until the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971 as an independent country. Bengal, or ‘Bangla Desh’, as it is called by all Bengalis in the cultural sense (as distinct from the post-1971 country of Bangladesh in the political sense), has gone through many changes across centuries. There was the first partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon which was resisted by the majority of the people. There was also the second partition in 1947 when a majority of the people called for a partition of the province into a Hindu-majority segment and the Muslim-majority segment, the former going to India and the latter going to Pakistan. From that point the two Bengals ceased to share a common political history and the Bengali-speaking people were split between the province of EastBengal (known as East Pakistan from 1956 till 1971) and the Indian state of Wiest Bengal. In 1971 East Pakistan revolted against West Pakistan and seceded to create a new nation-state known as Bangladesh.During the last four decades, I have been known as an author on management, economics and related subjects. It will surprise many friends to know that I majored in history and started my career by teaching history in PresidencyCollege, Calcutta, in 1956–57 before I joined the Indian Administrative Services(IAS). I was then gradually sucked into the world of management science and applied economics and took a PhD in management from the University of Delhi”.

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Charter of King Stephen of England

Oxford Charter of King Stephen

Carta Stephani 1136

Ego Stephaniis Dei gratia, assensu cleri et populi in regem Anglie electus, et a Willelmo Cantuariensi archiepiscopo et sancte Romane ecclesie legato consecratus, et ab Innocentio sancte romane sedis pontifice postmodum confirmatus, respectu et amore Dei sanctam ecclesiam liberam esse concedo, et debitam reverentiam illi confirmo.

Nichil me in ecclesia vel rebus ecclesiasticis simoniace actorum vel permissurum esse promitto. Ecclesiasticarum personarum et omnium clericorum et rerum eorum justiciam et potestatem et distributionem honorum ecclesiasticorum in manu archiepiscoporum esse perhibeo et confirmo. Dignitates ecclesiarum privilegiis eorum confirmatas et consuetudines earum antiquo tenore habitas inviolate manere statuo et concedo. Omnes ecclesiarum possessiones et tenuras, quas die illa habuerunt qua Willelmus rex avus meus fuit vivus et mortuus, sine omni calumpniantium reclamatione, eis liberas et absolutas esse concedo. Si quid vero de habitis vel possessis ante mortem ejusdem regis quibus modo careat, ecclesia deinceps repetierit, indulgentie et dispensationi mee vel restituendum vel discutiendum reservo. Quecunque vero post mortem ipsius regis liberalitate regum vel largitione principum, oblatione vel comparatione, vel qualibet transmutatione fidelium eis collata sunt, confirmo. Pacem et justiciam me in omnibus facturum et pro posse nieo conservaturum eis promitto.

Forestas quas Willelmus avus meus et Willelmus avunculus meus instituerunt et habuerunt milii reservo. Ceteras omnes quas rex Hernicus superaddidit, ecclesiis et regno quietas reddo et concedo.

Si quis episcopus vel abbas vel alia ecclesiastica persona ante mortem suam rationabiliter sua distribuerit vel distribuenda statuerit, firmum manere concedo. Si vero morte preoccupatus fuerit, pro salute anime ejus, ecclesie consilio, eadem fiat distributio. Dum vero sedes propriis pastoribus vacue fuerint, ipsas et earum possessiones omnes in manu et custodia clericorum vel proborum hominum ejusdem ccclesie committam, donec pastor canonice substituatur.

Omnes exactiones et injusticias et mescheningas sive per vicecomites vel per alios quoslibet male inductas funditus exstirpo. Bonas leges et antiquas et justas consuetudines in murdris et placitis et aliis causis observabo et observari precipio et constituo. Нес omnia concedo et confirmo, salva regia et justa dignitate mea.

Testibus Willelmo Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, et Hugone Rothomagensi archiepiscopo, et Henrico Wintoniensi episcopo, et Rogero Saresberiensi episcopo, et Alexandro Lincolniensi episcopo, et Nigello Eliensi episcopo, et Evrardo Norwicensi episcopo, et Simone Wigomiensi episcopo, et Bernardo episcopo de S. Davide, et Audoeno Ebroicensi episcopo, et Ricardo Abrincensi episcopo, et Roberto Herefordiensi episcopo, et Johanne Rovecestriensi episcopo, et Athelulfo Carlolensi episcopo, et Rogero cancellario, et Henrico nepote regis, et Roberto comite Gloecestrie, et Willelmo comite de Warenna, et Rannulfo comite Cestrie, et Roberto comite de Warewic., et Roberto de Ver., et Milone de Glocestria, et Brientio filio comitis, et Roberto de Oilly conestabulis, et Willelmo Martello, et Hugone Bigot, et Hunfredo de Bohun, et Simone de Belcamp dapiferis, et Willelmo de Albiniaco, et Eudone Martello pincernis, et Roberto de Ferreriis, et Willelmo Pevrello de Notingeliam, et Simone de Saintliz, et Willelmo de Albamarla, et Pagano filio Johannis, et Hamone de Sancto Claro, et liberto de Laceio. Apud Oxenford. Anno ab Incarnatione Domini MСXXXVI, sed regni mei primo.

An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers : A local DNA

Rakhigarhi became an archaeological hotspot when Amarendra Nath, former director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), undertook excavations at the site in 1997. The ASI team unearthed a fire altar, parts of a city wall, drainage structures as well as a hoard of semi-precious beads. The village is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times.

DNA sample taken from a skeleton of a woman studied and and found that the woman was not descended from Iranian group. Again it reveled that the present day people of Rakhigarhi are in continuation of the DNA found from the skeleton. The study directly connected present day South Asian people with the population of old Indus valley civilization.

The Team

A team led by geneticist David Reich at Harvard University and archaeologist Vasant Shinde at Deccan College in Pune, India, decided to try the promising technique with Indus specimens. They sampled more than 60 skeletal pieces, including numerous petrous bones, before they were able to extract ancient DNA from one.

Summary of study

The study reports an ancient genome from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). The individual we sequenced fits as a mixture of people related to ancient Iranians (the largest component) and Southeast Asian hunter-gatherers, a unique profile that matches ancient DNA from 11 genetic outliers from sites in Iran and Turkmenistan in cultural communication with the IVC. These individuals had little if any Steppe pastoralist-derived ancestry, showing that it was not ubiquitous in northwest South Asia during the IVC as it is today. The Iranian-related ancestry in the IVC derives from a lineage leading to early Iranian farmers, herders, and hunter-gatherers before their ancestors separated, contradicting the hypothesis that the shared ancestry between early Iranians and South Asians reflects a large-scale spread of western Iranian farmers east. Instead, sampled ancient genomes from the Iranian plateau and IVC descend from different groups of hunter-gatherers who began farming without being connected by substantial movement of people.

The study have shown that the ancient South Asian farmers[Read Indian] represented in the IVC[4,000 and 3,500 years ago] had negligible ancestry related to ancient Anatolian[Turkey] farmers, as well as an Iranian-related ancestry component distinct from sampled ancient farmers and herders in Iran.

So the the woman[DNA] not originated from Iran , rather her origin is local.

Read the study :

Veda Samhita Shakh and their Geographical Distribution

Akhanda Bharat

Vedic Samhitas are divided into multiple Sakhas. Sakhas are actually schools. Kanva Sakha and Bajsanehi Sakha of Yayur Veda are same in Mantra collections, the only differs in Swar gram or pronunciations. Both have 40 chapters. a particular group of people reads a particular Sakha.

According to the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, there were 21 shakhas of Rigveda, 9 of Atharvaveda, 101 of Yajurveda (86 of Krishna Yajurveda and 15 of Shukla Yajurveda, according to later authorities) and a 1000 varieties of chanting of Samaveda. ’ Above Samhitas were available at the time of Patanjali .

Two different Vedic shakhas might share one or more texts amongst themselves. Conversely, the distinction between two shakhas of the same Veda might result from the use of a different Samhita text, and/or a different Brahmana text, and/or different Kalpasutra text and so on. For e.g., the Baudhayana and the Apastamba shakhas use the same Taittiriya Brahmana, Taittiriya Samhita and Taittiriya Aranyaka but follow different Kalpasutras. On the other hand, the Shankhayana and the Kaushitaka shakhas use the same Samhita and Shrauta Sutra but their Brahmanas have slightly different readings and their Grhyasutras are quite different.

A group or a community of people who study a particular shakha in its entirety (Samhita + Brahmana + Aranyaka + Kalpasutra + any additional texts) and perform its ritual constitute a ‘charana’. For instance, Brahmins who study the Taittiriya Samhita/Brahmana/Aranyaka together with the Kalpasutra of Apastamba say – “I follow the Apastamba charana’.

In certain cases, we have instances of ‘mixed shakhas’. For instance, the followers of Shakala shakha have adopted the Kalpasutra of Ashvalayana. The Ashvalayana shakha, which had the now well-known Ashvalayana Sutra, has in turn lost oral traditions of its Samhita. Likewise, the Kaushitakins of Kerala often use the Samhita of Shakalas.

Presently following Sakhas are available in the Indian subcontinent though some are near to extinct.  and it is read in a particular region < Such as Kanva Samhita of Yayur Veda is available in Gokarna and Assam region, Vaidiks are available here who are practitioners or this Sakha.


  • Sakala RV:  Previously Sakala Sakha readers were available in Sialkot [Pakistan] and it was collected there.  Several practitioners are available in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu and to some extent in Uttar Pradesh. Nambudiris of Kerala recite even the Brahmana and Aranyaka with accents. Accented manuscripts of Brahmana and Aranyaka are available to this day.
  • Shankhayana Rigveda: Gujarat and parts of Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Oral tradition extinct, only manuscripts of Samhita are extant. Ritual lives in a very fragmentary condition
  • Bashkala RV: All Sakal Mantras are available in Baskal Sakha. The Difference is Chapter arrangement.  Reders are available in Kerala, Rajasthan, Bengal and Assam as a living tradition, but have never been verified. The Samhita exists in manuscript. Nambudiris of Kerala are said to follow this Shakha of RV as far as the Samhita is concerned but studies of their oral tradition do not seem to bear this out.
  • Ashvalayana RV: Manuscripts of the Samhita have been found in Kashmir, Maharashtra (Ahmadnagar) and Patna (Bihar). In parts of central and eastern India, Shakala RV texts are often attributed to Ashvalayana. For instance, the Aitareya Brahman is often called Ashvalayana Brahmana in West Bengal. Oral traditions extinct although the followers of Shakala Shakha in Maharashtra often term themselves as Ashvalayanas because they follow the Kalpasutra (Shrautasutra + Grhyasutra) of Ashvalayana.
  • Paingi RV: Exited in Tamil Nadu, in and around Andavan. Oral traditions lost but Brahmana texts rumored to exist. Pangi rahashya Brahman has been mentioned by Adi Sankara, but it is not available in book form now.
  • Mandukeya RV: Magadha and eastern and central Uttar Pradesh. Possibly lower Himalayas in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.  Brhaddevata and Rigvidhana mentioned it. Mandukya Upanisad is available to us. 


  • Madhyandina YV: Currently found all over North India- Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and even Maharashtra (up to Nashik), West Bengal, Assam, Nepal. Along with Taittiriya Yajurveda, it is the most prevalent Vedic shakha. Followers of this school were found in Sindh (Pakistan) in the 19th century but became extinct after Hindus were ethnically cleansed by the Muslim majority after 1947.
  • Kanva YV: Currently found in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. In Orissa, the followers of this shakha follow a slightly different text. Epigraphic evidence shows that they were once present all over India, as far as Himachal Pradesh and possibly in Nepal.
  • Charaka YV: Interior Maharashtra, adjacent parts of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh. Followers of this shakha now follow the Maitrayani YV shakha, having lost their own texts.
  • Maitrayani YV: In Morvi (Gujarat), parts of Maharashtra (Naskik/Bhadgaon, Nandurbar, Dhule). Earlier, they were spread all the way east up to Allahabad and extended into Rajasthan and possibly into Sindh.
  • Kathaka YV: The oral traditions became extinct possibly a few decades ago. They were found in central and eastern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, possibly west Punjab and NWFP. In later times, they got restricted to Kashmir, where all their extant manuscripts have been unearthed. Recently, the entire Hindu minority was cleansed from the Kashmir valley by Islamists, and so the shakha might be deemed extinct completely now.
  • Charayaniya Katha YV: Existed in Kashmir.
  • Kapisthala Katha YV: Found in West Punjab around the time of the invasion of Alexander. Also in parts of Gujarat. Only a fragmentary Samhita and Grhyasutra text exist, and followers of this shakha are said to exist at the mouths of Narmada and Tapi rivers in Gujarat.
  • Jabala YV: Central India, around the Narmada region. In Maharashtra, there still exist Shukla-Yajurvedin Brahmins who call themselves ‘Jabala Brahmins’, but there is no knowledge of the existence of any texts of this shakha.
  • Taittiriya YV: Buddhist texts and some versions of Ramayana attest their presence in the Gangetic plains but currently they are found all over Southern India. The Taittiriyas are themselves divided into numerous sub-schools. Among these, the followers of Baudhayana and Apastamba were found all over South India (including Maharashtra), while the Hiranyakeshins were found mainly in Konkan and Western Maharashtra. The Vaikhanasas have a more eastern presence- around Tirupati and Chennai. The Vadhulas are present currently in Kerala and earlier in adjacent parts of Tamil Nadu. The Agniveshyas, a subdivision of the Vadhula immigrants from Malabar, are found around Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. The Apastamba, Hiranyakeshin, Vaikhanasa and Baudhayana schools have survived with all their texts intact.


  • Kauthuma SV: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu (tradition revived with the help of Brahmins from Poona), Kerala, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar (tradition revived a century ago), West Bengal (tradition has been revived recently). There are numerous varieties of Kauthuma chanting. This shakha is the most vibrant tradition of Samaveda.
  • Ranayaniya SV: Orissa (manuscripts available, status of oral tradition not known), Maharashtra, Karnataka (the Havyak <you mean havik?> community for instance), Uttar Pradesh (till recently in Bahraich and Mathura), Rajasthan (till recently in Jaipur). The existence of this shakha was endangered till recently, but it has been strengthened with the help of institutions like the Kanchi Kamakoti Matha.
  • Jaiminiya/Talavakara SV: Two distinct sub streams- the Namudiri recitations in Central Kerala, and the recitations of Tamil Nadu Brahmins in districts adjacent to Kerala and in and around Srirangam. The survival of these schools is endangered.
  • Shatyayaniya SV: Said to have been prevalent in Tamil Nadu and parts of North India. The shakha is no longer extant.
  • Gautama SV: Said to have been prevalent in Tamil Nadu and in Andhra Pradesh till the 17th cent. C.E. Many followers of the Kauthuma school in Andhra Pradesh still call themselves ‘Gautamas’.
  • Bhallavi SV: Said to have been prevalent in Karnataka and parts of North India


  • Shaunakiya AV: Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Avadh region in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh. Only Gujarat has maintained the oral traditions, and the shakha has been resuscitated in recent times in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Staudayana AV: According to Majjhima Nikaya, followers of this shakha lived in Koshala (central and eastern Uttar Pradesh). The shakha is completely lost.
  • Paippalada AV: Followers are currently found in parts of Orissa and adjacent areas of Bihar and West Bengal and recite the Samhita in ekasruti (monotone syllable). Epigraphic and literary evidence shows that they once thrived in Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and parts of Gujarat, East Bengal and in Tamil Nadu as well.
  • Devadarshi AV: According to literary evidence, followers of this Shakha once lived in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Other AV shakhas said to have been prevalent in that region were Shaulkayani and Munjakeshi. The shakha is completely lost.
  • Charanavaidya and Jajala AV: Perhaps existed in Gujarat, Central India and adjacent parts of Rajasthan. According to the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas, the Samhita of the Charanavaidya shakha had 6026 mantras.
  •  Mauda AV: The readers were existed in Kashmir, in 1980 due to terrorism libraries were burnt and readers were expelled from the valley. Their Gurukulas were destroyed.

इक्ष्वाकु वंश – Iksvaku Vamsha

हरिश्चन्द्रस्य पुत्रोऽभूद् रोहितो नाम वीर्यवान् ।
रोहितस्य वृकः पुत्रः तस्मात्बाहुरजायत।।२१.३

हरितो रोहितस्याथ धुन्धुस्तस्य सुतोऽभवत् ।
विजयश्च सुदेवश्च धुन्धुपुत्रौ बभूवतुः ।
विजयस्याभवत् पुत्रः कारुको नाम वीर्यवान् ।
सगरस्तस्य पुत्रौऽभूद् राजा परमधार्मिकः ।
द्वे भार्ये सगरस्यापि प्रभा भानुमती तथा ।२१.४

ताभ्यामाराधितः वह्निः प्रादादौ वरमुत्तमम् ।
एकं भानुमती पुत्रमगृह्णादसमञ्जसम् ।२१.५

प्रभा षष्टिसहस्त्रं तु पुत्राणां जगृहे शुभा ।
असमञ्सस्य तनयो ह्यंशुमान् नाम पार्थिवः ।२१.६

तस्य पुत्रो दिलीपस्तु दिलीपात् तु भगीरथः ।
येन भागीरथी गङ्गा तपः कृत्वाऽवतारिता ।२१.७

प्रसादाद् देवदेवस्य महादेवस्य धीमतः ।
भगीरथस्य तपसा देवः प्रीतमना हरः ।२१.८

बभार शिरसा गङ्गां सोमान्ते सोमभूषणः ।
भगीरथसुतश्चापि श्रुतो नाम बभूव ह ।२१.९

नाभागस्तस्य दायादः सिन्धुद्वीपस्ततोऽभवत् ।
अयुतायुः सुतस्तस्य ऋतुपर्णस्तु तत्सुतः ।२१.१०

ऋतुपर्णस्य पुत्रोऽभूत् सुदासो नाम धार्मिकाः ।
सौदासस्तस्य तनयः ख्यातः कल्माषपादकः ।। २१.११

वसिष्ठस्तु महातेजाः क्षेत्रे कल्माषपादके ।
अश्मकं जनयामसा तमिक्ष्वाकुकुलध्वजम् ।। २१.१२

अश्मकस्योत्कलायां तु नकुलो नाम पार्थिवः ।
स हि रामभयाद् राजा वनं प्राप सुदुः खितः ।। २१.१३

विभ्रत् स नारीकवचं तस्माच्छतरथोऽभवत् ।
तस्माद् बिलिबिलिः श्रीमान्‌वृद्धशर्माचतत्सुतः ।। २१.१४

तस्माद् विश्वसहस्तस्मात् खट्वाङ्ग इति विश्रुतः ।
दीर्घबाहुः सुतस्तस्य रघुस्तस्मादजायत ।। २१.१५

रघोरजः समुत्पन्नो राजा दशरथस्ततः ।
रामो दाशरथिर्वोरो धर्मज्ञो लोकविश्रुतः ।। २१.१६

भरतो लक्ष्मणश्चैव शत्रुघ्नश्च महाबलः ।
सर्वे शक्रसमा युद्धे विष्णुशक्तिसमन्विताः ।२१.१७

यज्ञेन यज्ञहन्तारमश्वमेधेन शंकरम् ।
रामस्य तनयो जज्ञे कुश इत्यभिविश्रुतः ।२१.५५

लवश्च सुमहाभागः सर्वतत्त्वार्थवित् सुधीः ।
अतिथिस्तु कुशाज्जज्ञे निषधस्तत्सुतोऽभवत् ।२१.५६

नलस्तु निषधस्याभून्नभास्तमादजायत ।
नभसः पुण्डरीकाक्षः क्षेमधन्वा च तत्सुतः ।२१.५७

तस्य पुत्रोऽभवद् वीरो देवानीकः प्रतापवान् ।
अहीनगुस्तस्य सुतो सहस्वांस्तत्सुतोऽभवत् ।२१.५८

तस्माच्चन्द्रावलोकस्तु तारापीडस्तु तत्सुतः ।
तारापीडाच्चन्द्रगिरिर्भानुवित्तस्ततोऽभवत् ।२१.५९

श्रुतायुरभवत् तस्मादेते इक्ष्वाकुवंशजाः ।
सर्वे प्राधान्यतः प्रोक्ताः समासेन द्विजोत्तमाः ।। २१.६०

Source : श्रीकूर्मपुराणे पूर्वविभागे एकविशोऽध्यायः

पुराण लक्षणम् – Purana Lakshanam

Sanskrit Documents

सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च ।
वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ।। १.१२

ब्राह्मं पुराणं प्रथमं पाद्मं वैष्णवमेव च ।
शैवं भागवतं चैव भविष्यं नारदीयकम् ।। १.१३

मार्कण्डेयमथाग्नेयं ब्रह्मवैवर्तमेव च ।
लैङ्गं तथा च वाराहं स्कान्दं वामनमेव च ।। १.१४

कौर्म्मं मात्स्यं गारुडं च वायवीयमनन्तरम् ।
अष्टादशं समुद्दिष्टं ब्रह्मण्डमिति संज्ञितम् ।। १.१५

अन्यान्युपपुराणानि मुनिभिः कथितानि तु ।
अष्टादशपुराणानि श्रुत्वा संक्षेपतो द्विजाः ।। १.१६

आद्यं सनत्कुमारोक्तं नारसिहमतः परम् ।
तृतीयं स्कान्दमुद्दिष्टं कुमारेण तु भाषितम् ।। १.१७

चतुर्थं शिवधर्माख्यं साक्षान्नन्दीशभाषितम् ।
दुर्वाससोक्तमाश्चर्यं नारदीयमतः परम् ।। १.१८

कापिलं वामनं चैव तथैवोशनसेरितम् ।
ब्रह्माण्डं वारुणं चैव कालिकाह्वयमेव च ।। १.१९

माहेश्वरं तथा साम्बं सौरं सर्वार्थसञ्चयम् ।
पराशरोक्तं मारीचं भार्गवाह्वयम् ।। १.२०

इदं तु पञ्चदशकं पुराणं कौर्ममुत्तमम् ।
चतुर्द्धा संस्थितं पुण्यं संहितानां प्रभेदतः ।। १.२१

ब्राह्मी भागवती सौरी वैष्णवी च प्रकीर्तिताः ।
चतस्त्रः संहिताः पुण्या धर्मकामार्थमोक्षदाः ।। १.२२

इयं तु संहिता ब्राह्मी चतुर्वेदैस्तु सम्मिता ।
भवन्ति षट्‌सहस्राणि श्लोकानामत्र संख्यया ।। १.२३

यत्र धर्मार्थकामानां मोक्षस्य च मुनीश्वराः ।
माहात्म्यमखिलं ब्रह्म ज्ञायते परमेश्वरः ।। १.२४

सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च ।
वंशानुचरितं पुण्या दिव्या प्रासङ्गिकी कथाः ।। १.२५

श्रीकूर्मपुराणे  पूर्वविभागे  प्रथमोऽध्यायः ।।


Pre-Iron age [2000 BCE] chariot found in an excavation in  Bagpat District of UP  gives ‘new dimension to the Indian history’. On June 04, 2018, the archaeological team unveiled the excavations showing these burial pits with chariots from the pre-iron age. Among Rig Vedic deities, notably Ushas (the dawn) and Agni were chariot rider.


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“The discovery of a chariot puts us on a par with other ancient civilizations, like Mesopotamia, Greece, etc. where chariots were extensively used. It seems a warrior class thrived in this region in the past,” said SK Manjul who is co-director of Excavations and ASI’s Institute of Archaeology in Delhi.

Manjul termed the digging drive a “path-breaking” one, also because of the copper plated anthropomorphic figures – having horns and peepal-leafed crowns – found on the coffins, that indicated a possibility of “royal burials”.

“For the first time in the entire sub-continent, we have found this kind of a coffin. The cover is highly decorated with eight anthropomorphic figures. The sides of the coffins are also decorated with floral motifs,” Manjul said.

While coffins have been discovered during past excavations in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Dholavira (Gujarat), but never with copper decorations, he added.

History of Jews and Israel


1800 BEC

Abraham migrates to Canaan according to Jewish tradition.
1300? BCE Migration and conquest of Canaan by the Philistines and Israelite tribes. Map of Canaan.
1000? BCE Jewish conquest of Jerusalem; reign of David (maps); After the death of David’s son, Solomon, the kingdom split into two: Israel in the north, Judea in Jerusalem and the south (maps).   Brief History of Early Palestine in maps.
721 BCE Fall of Israel (Northern Kingdom) to Assyria
586 BCE Fall of Judea (Southern Kingdom) to Babylon and destruction of the first temple
About 539 BCE Fall of Babylon. Jews allowed to return to Judea. Tradition has it that Ezra and Nehemia led this return, and later rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, but the walls were apparently not built until 100 years later.
About 519 BCE Rebuilding of the Second Temple under Persian rule.
331 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Persia. The land was subject to Egyptian rule after his death, followed by Seleucid Syrian rule.
166 BCE Revolt of Judah Maccabee against Syrian Hellenic dynasty; Simon. 164 – Liberation of Jerusalem. Judah is named Friend of the Roman Senate and People; Rule of the Maccabees: 166 – Judah 160 -Jonathan 143 

66-73 AD

First Jewish revolt. Fall of the Jewish Second Temple to Romans in 70 AD.
133-135 Second Jewish revolt under Bar Kochba  crushed. Judea renamed Palestina. Jews are banned from Jerusalem by Hadrianus Caesar.
614 Persians conquer Judea and Jerusalem..
628 Emperor Heraclius defeats Sassanid Persians, reconquers Jerusalem..

About 638

Arab conquest of Jerusalem (slightly earlier or later according to different sources). CaliphOmar provides the Christians of Jerusalem with a Covenant guaranteeing their protection. Land  divided into the Jund of filastin, in the south (capital in Al-Lod and later in Ramlah), and the Jund of Urdunn in the north, with capital in Tiberias (Tabariyeh).
1099 Crusaders conquer Jerusalem, slaughter most Jewish and Moslem inhabitants, expel Jews.
1187 Saladin (Salah-al-din) reconquers Jerusalem
1291 Crusaders defeated at Acre and evicted from Palestine.
1517 Ottoman Turkish conquest of Palestine.


Ottoman Sultan invites Rabbi Haim Abulafia (1660-1744),  Kabbalist and Rabbi of Izmir, to come to rebuild the city of Tiberias; thousands of Jews immigrate to the land in a wave of Messianic fervor, including  Rabbi Moses Haim Luzzatto (1707-1746).  
1799 Napoleon conquers Jaffa but retreats before Acco (Acre); 1799 – Napoleon’s Proclamation of a Jewish State was stillborn, and his declaration of equal rights for Jews was repealed in part in 1806.
1831 Egyptian Conquest of Palestine area by Mehmed Ali of Egypt, who rebelled against the Ottomans. He was forced to withdraw in 1840 under pressure by European allies.
1843 First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alcalay and of Rabbi Kalischer, Emuna Yeshara.
1844 First census in Jerusalem shows 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
1856 Ottoman reforms (Tanzimat) – including requirement to register ownership of land in Palestine and pay taxes on it.
1860 First Jewish settlement (Mishkenot Sha’ananim) outside Jerusalem walls.
1878 First Zionist Settlement – Petah Tikwa.
1870s Formation of Hovevei Tzion in Russia
1881-1885 Wave of Russian pogroms catalyzes First Aliya (wave of immigration to Israel)..
1882 Russian May Laws; Leon Pinsker writes Auto-Emancipation in 1882; formation of BILU; beginning of the First Aliya (wave of immigration).
1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland.
1903 Kishinev Pogrom and Russian Pogroms of 1905 catalyze Second Aliya
Nov 2, 1917 British issued the Balfour Declaration,  promising a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine.
August, 1929 Arab Riots and Massacres in HebronJerusalem, Safed, Haifa, Motza and elsewhere. The Jews had set up a dividing screen at the Wailing Wall in Yom Kippur of 1928 to separate men and women worshippers, prompting rumors that the Jews wanted to build a synagogue at wall, which were spread deliberately by Hajj Amin El Husseini.
1936-1939 Arab Revolt led by Haj Amin Al-Husseini. Over 5,000 Arabs were killed according to some sources, mostly by British. Several hundred Jews were killed by Arabs. Husseini fled to Iraq and then to Nazi Germany. British White Paper (1939) severely restricts Jewish immigration.
May 9, 1942 Biltmore Program – Zionist leaders, headed by Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, convene at the Biltmore Hotel in New York and declare their postwar program (known as the Biltmore Program).  The program recommended an end to the British Mandate and demand Jewish control over immigration to Palestine with the aim of founding a Jewish “Commonwealth.” wish history, Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Timeline, Zionist movement, Israel history, Middle East history
May 15, 1948 Israel War of Independence  (1948 War). Declaration of Israel as the Jewish State; British leave Palestine; Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declared war on Israel. Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian invasion began.
April 3, 1949 Armistice – Israel and Arab states agree to armistice. Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan.
Oct. 29, 1956 Suez Campaign. In retaliation for a series of escalating border raids as well as the closure of the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping, and to prevent Egyptian use of newly acquired Soviet arms in a war, Israel invades the Sinai peninsula and occupies it for several months, with French and British collaboration.
May, 1964 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) founded with the aim of destroying Israel. The Palestinian National Charter (1968) officially called for liquidation of Israel.
May, 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and dismisses UN peacekeeping force. Negotiations with US to reopen the Straits of Tiran fail.
June 5-10,1967 Six day war – Israel destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 called for  Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace.
June 19, 1967 Israeli Cabinet decides on secret offer, to be delivered to Syrians and Egyptians though American diplomats, calling for return of territories conquered in the Six day war  in return for peace.
Oct. 6, 1973 Yom Kippur War (October War). In a surprise attack on the Jewish day of atonement, Egypt retook the Suez canal and a narrow zone on the other side. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. Following massive US and Soviet resupplying of the sides, Israel succeeded in pushing back the Syrians and threatening Damascus. Ariel Sharon was instrumental in the successful crossing of the Suez Canal, which cut off the Egyptian Third Army. Israeli casualties were unacceptably high however, and both Syria and Egypt celebrate the anniversary of the war as a victory.
March 26, 1979 Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel.
June 7, 1981 Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor in daring raid.
Oct. 6, 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated while on the reviewing stand of a victory parade.
June 6, 1982 Massive Israeli invasion of Lebanon to fight PLO.
Sept. 13, 1993 Oslo Declaration of Principles – Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition.
Sept 28, 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement signed. Palestinian Authority to be established.
Nov. 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir. Rabin is replaced by Shimon Peres
June, 1996 Right-Wing Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu elected Prime Minister in Israel, replacingShimon Peres.
Sept, 1996 Al-Aqsa tunnel riots – Arab sources spread the false rumor that a gate opened in an underground tunnel tourist attraction by the Israeli government, endangered the foundations of the Al-Aqsa mosque. This caused several days of rioting and numerous casualties.
Jan 18, 1997 Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
Oct. 1998 Wye River Plantation talks result in an agreement for Israeli redeployment and release of political prisoners and renewed Palestinian commitment to correct its violations of the Oslo accords including excess police force, illegal arms and incitement in public media and education.
May 17, 1999 Israel elects Labor party leader and Former General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister in a landslide. Barak promises rapid progress toward peace.
March, 2000 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations fail when Hafez Assad rejects an Israeli offer relayed by US President Clinton in Geneva.
Sept. 28, 2000 Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon  visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram as Sharif holy to Muslims.
Feb 6, 2001 Right-wing Likud leader Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising “peace and security.”
Mar.-Apr. 2002 Israel conducts operation Defensive Wall in the West Bank, following a large number of Palestinian suicide attacks on civilian targets. Saudi peace initiative adopted at Beirut summit.
Jan 28, 2003 Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party, returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli security barrier violates international law and must be torn down.
Nov 11, 2004 Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies.
Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Jan 2006 On January 4, Ariel Sharon suffered a massive stroke, leaving the leadership of Israel and the new Kadima party in the hands of Ehud Olmert  
Jan 26, 2006 On January 26, the radical Islamist Hamas movement won an upset victory in Palestinian Legislative Council elections, threatening to end about 40 years of Fateh-PLO leadership of the Palestinians and to completely ruin hopes for peace with Israel. Hamas spokesmen sent mixed signals, but vowed never to recognize Israel and never to give up their claim to all of Palestine.
March 28 Ehud Olmert elected PM of Israel, heading Kadima party coalition
July 12 Second Lebanon War – Hezbollah terrorists cross the blue line border with Lebanon, attack an Israeli patrol, killing 3 and capturing 2 soldiers. Additional soldier dies the following day and several are killed when a tank hits a mine, pursuing the captors. At the same time, Hezbollah began a series of rocket attacks on northern Israel. In subsequent days, Israel carried out massive but selective bombing and artillery shelling of Lebanon, hitting rocket stores, Hezbollah headquarters in Dahya quarter of Beirut (see Beirut Map and al-Manara television in Beirut, and killing over two hundred persons, many civilians. Hezbollah responds with several hundred rocket attacks on Haifa, Tiberias, Safed and other towns deep in northern Israel, killing 13 civilians to July 18 (See Map of Hezbollah Rocket Attacks, and a Hezbollah Iranian supplied C-802 missile hits an Israeli missile cruiser off the cost of Beirut, killing 4. Hezbollah rocket also sinks at least one foreign neutral ship and damages an Egyptian one. G-8 meeting calls for cessation of violence, return of Israeli soldier and disarmament of Hezbolla in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1559 and UN Security Council Resolution 1680
Aug 14, 2006 Cease fire, based on UN Security Council Resolution 1701
Feb. 2007 Israeli renovations near the Mughrabi gate of the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem spark widespread unrest in the Arab world, over false charges that Israel is destroying the mosque.
Feb. 8, 2007 Palestinian Unity Agreement in Mecca. Hamas and Fatah agree to share power, based on vaguely worded agreement. Hamas officials reiterate that they will never recognize Israel. US and Israel insist that the new government must recognize right of Israel to exist, disarm terrorist groups and agree to end violence.
Feb. 19, 2007 Trilateral Israeli-Palestinian-American summit with Secretary of State Rice, PM Ehud Olmert and President Abbas ended with no visible result.
March 17, 2007 Palestinian unity government sworn in.
June 2007 Hamas ousts Fatah from Gaza in bloody coup.
Nov. 26-28 US convenes peace summit at Annapolis, Md. with participation of Arab nations, Quartet, EU members, GCC and others including South Africa. Israelis and Palestinians are forced to agree on a joint statement that vows to implement the quartet roadmap in parallel, with US monitoring performance and the sides negotiating continuously with the aim of concluding an agreement by the end of 2008. See: Joint Israeli-Palestinian Declaration, and its meaning  
Jan. 2008 President Bush visit to Middle East; Hamas “breakout” into Egypt at Rafah Crossing.
Feb. 12, 2008 Hezbollah “militant” Imad Moughniyeh killed by car bomb in Damascus. Moughniyeh was a “militancy” mastermind, responsible for attacks on U.S. embassy and US marines in Lebanon in the 80s, for kidnapping of American nationals, for explosions in Israel Embassy and Jewish Center in Argentina and apparently for planning the kidnappings that triggered the second Lebanon War. FBI had a $5 million dollar reward out for Moughniyeh. Israel denies any involvement in the killing of Moughniyeh.
Dec 27, 2008-Jan 18, 2009 Operation Cast Lead – Israeli operation in Gaza to stop Hamas rocket attacks. Over 1,000 Palestinian casualties.
April 1, 2009 Following elections,  Likud party head Benjamin Netanyahu becomes Prme Minister.
June 4, 2009 Address by President Obama in Cairo, June 4, 2009 – Historic speech of rapprochement with the Arab and Muslim world also has direct implications for Israeli-Palestinian conflict, since the President calls for an end to Israeli construction of settlements in the occupied territories, as well as Arab recognition of Israel and a two state solution.