The situation, Customs and People of Germany: A treatise of Tacitus


THE whole of Germany is thus bounded; it is separated from Gaul, from Rhœtia and Pannonia, by the rivers Rhine and Danube; from Sarmatia and Dacia by mutual fear, or by high mountains: The rest is encompassed by the Ocean, which forms huge bays, and comprehends a tract of islands immense in extent: For we have lately known certain Nations, and even Kingdoms there, such as the War first discovered. The Rhine rising in the Rhœtian Alps from a summit altogether rocky and perpendicular, after a small winding towards the West, is lost in the Northern Ocean. The Danube issues out of the mountain Abnoba, one very high, but very easy of ascent; and traversing several nations, falls by six streams into the Euxine sea; for its seventh channel is absorbed in the Fenns.
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THE HISTORY OF BENGAL – R.C. Majumdar and Jadunath Sarkar Vol: I, II and III



The idea of writing a comprehensive History of Bengal on modem scientific lines may be traced back to 1912 when Lord Carmichael,  the first Governor of the Bengal Presidency, took the initiative and invited MM. Haraprasad Sastri to prepare a scheme. It was proposed to publish the history in three volumes dealing respectively with the Hindu, Muslim and British periods. Several meetings were held in the Government House, Calcutta, but what became the result of this plan and how far it was matured are not definitely known,  to me years later, the late Raja Prafulla Nath Tagore, the grandson of the famous Kali Krishna Tagore, volunteered to pay the entire cost of such a publication and invited the late Mr. Rakhaldas Banerji to draw up a plan along with some other well-known scholars of his time. Several meetings were held in the bouse of the Baja, but ultimately nothing came out of it.

Ever since the foundation of the University of Dacca, it was felt that the University should take up the task of preparing a  History of Bengal as early as practicable. This idea received on impetus from Sir Jadunath Sarkar, who, in the course of a lecture delivered at the University about the middle of July 19S3, emphasised  ‘that a History of Bengal on modem scientific lines was long overdue,  and that this University, standing as it does in the very heart of an ancient and important seat of Bengal culture, should in the fitness of things take up the work. Sir Jadunath promised his whole-hearted support and active co-operation in this enterprise.

The scheme received a new impetus from Mr. (now Sir)  A. F. Rahman, when he joined the University as Vice-Chancellor in  July 1934. In his first convocation address next month he emphasised  the need of commencing the work, and in his second convocation
speech, in July 1935, he announced that some preliminary work had already been done.

By the end of August 1935, the scheme took a more definite  shape, as Professor R. C. Majumdar, Head of the Department of  History, who was so busy with his own research
work (m Ae history of Ancient Imfian Colonies in the Far East, was now free to take up the world.

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Land of Two Rivers – A History of Bengal From the Mahabharata to Mujib-Nitish Sengupta

Book excerpt



“This is by far the only book that covers the history of Bengal from the earliest times until the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971 as an independent country. Bengal, or ‘Bangla Desh’, as it is called by all Bengalis in the cultural sense (as distinct from the post-1971 country of Bangladesh in the political sense), has gone through many changes across centuries. There was the first partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon which was resisted by the majority of the people. There was also the second partition in 1947 when a majority of the people called for a partition of the province into a Hindu-majority segment and the Muslim-majority segment, the former going to India and the latter going to Pakistan. From that point the two Bengals ceased to share a common political history and the Bengali-speaking people were split between the province of EastBengal (known as East Pakistan from 1956 till 1971) and the Indian state of Wiest Bengal. In 1971 East Pakistan revolted against West Pakistan and seceded to create a new nation-state known as Bangladesh.During the last four decades, I have been known as an author on management, economics and related subjects. It will surprise many friends to know that I majored in history and started my career by teaching history in PresidencyCollege, Calcutta, in 1956–57 before I joined the Indian Administrative Services(IAS). I was then gradually sucked into the world of management science and applied economics and took a PhD in management from the University of Delhi”.

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Charter of King Stephen of England

Oxford Charter of King Stephen

Carta Stephani 1136

Ego Stephaniis Dei gratia, assensu cleri et populi in regem Anglie electus, et a Willelmo Cantuariensi archiepiscopo et sancte Romane ecclesie legato consecratus, et ab Innocentio sancte romane sedis pontifice postmodum confirmatus, respectu et amore Dei sanctam ecclesiam liberam esse concedo, et debitam reverentiam illi confirmo.

Nichil me in ecclesia vel rebus ecclesiasticis simoniace actorum vel permissurum esse promitto. Ecclesiasticarum personarum et omnium clericorum et rerum eorum justiciam et potestatem et distributionem honorum ecclesiasticorum in manu archiepiscoporum esse perhibeo et confirmo. Dignitates ecclesiarum privilegiis eorum confirmatas et consuetudines earum antiquo tenore habitas inviolate manere statuo et concedo. Omnes ecclesiarum possessiones et tenuras, quas die illa habuerunt qua Willelmus rex avus meus fuit vivus et mortuus, sine omni calumpniantium reclamatione, eis liberas et absolutas esse concedo. Si quid vero de habitis vel possessis ante mortem ejusdem regis quibus modo careat, ecclesia deinceps repetierit, indulgentie et dispensationi mee vel restituendum vel discutiendum reservo. Quecunque vero post mortem ipsius regis liberalitate regum vel largitione principum, oblatione vel comparatione, vel qualibet transmutatione fidelium eis collata sunt, confirmo. Pacem et justiciam me in omnibus facturum et pro posse nieo conservaturum eis promitto.

Forestas quas Willelmus avus meus et Willelmus avunculus meus instituerunt et habuerunt milii reservo. Ceteras omnes quas rex Hernicus superaddidit, ecclesiis et regno quietas reddo et concedo.

Si quis episcopus vel abbas vel alia ecclesiastica persona ante mortem suam rationabiliter sua distribuerit vel distribuenda statuerit, firmum manere concedo. Si vero morte preoccupatus fuerit, pro salute anime ejus, ecclesie consilio, eadem fiat distributio. Dum vero sedes propriis pastoribus vacue fuerint, ipsas et earum possessiones omnes in manu et custodia clericorum vel proborum hominum ejusdem ccclesie committam, donec pastor canonice substituatur.

Omnes exactiones et injusticias et mescheningas sive per vicecomites vel per alios quoslibet male inductas funditus exstirpo. Bonas leges et antiquas et justas consuetudines in murdris et placitis et aliis causis observabo et observari precipio et constituo. Нес omnia concedo et confirmo, salva regia et justa dignitate mea.

Testibus Willelmo Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, et Hugone Rothomagensi archiepiscopo, et Henrico Wintoniensi episcopo, et Rogero Saresberiensi episcopo, et Alexandro Lincolniensi episcopo, et Nigello Eliensi episcopo, et Evrardo Norwicensi episcopo, et Simone Wigomiensi episcopo, et Bernardo episcopo de S. Davide, et Audoeno Ebroicensi episcopo, et Ricardo Abrincensi episcopo, et Roberto Herefordiensi episcopo, et Johanne Rovecestriensi episcopo, et Athelulfo Carlolensi episcopo, et Rogero cancellario, et Henrico nepote regis, et Roberto comite Gloecestrie, et Willelmo comite de Warenna, et Rannulfo comite Cestrie, et Roberto comite de Warewic., et Roberto de Ver., et Milone de Glocestria, et Brientio filio comitis, et Roberto de Oilly conestabulis, et Willelmo Martello, et Hugone Bigot, et Hunfredo de Bohun, et Simone de Belcamp dapiferis, et Willelmo de Albiniaco, et Eudone Martello pincernis, et Roberto de Ferreriis, et Willelmo Pevrello de Notingeliam, et Simone de Saintliz, et Willelmo de Albamarla, et Pagano filio Johannis, et Hamone de Sancto Claro, et liberto de Laceio. Apud Oxenford. Anno ab Incarnatione Domini MСXXXVI, sed regni mei primo.

An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers : A local DNA

Rakhigarhi became an archaeological hotspot when Amarendra Nath, former director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), undertook excavations at the site in 1997. The ASI team unearthed a fire altar, parts of a city wall, drainage structures as well as a hoard of semi-precious beads. The village is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times.

DNA sample taken from a skeleton of a woman studied and and found that the woman was not descended from Iranian group. Again it reveled that the present day people of Rakhigarhi are in continuation of the DNA found from the skeleton. The study directly connected present day South Asian people with the population of old Indus valley civilization.

The Team

A team led by geneticist David Reich at Harvard University and archaeologist Vasant Shinde at Deccan College in Pune, India, decided to try the promising technique with Indus specimens. They sampled more than 60 skeletal pieces, including numerous petrous bones, before they were able to extract ancient DNA from one.

Summary of study

The study reports an ancient genome from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). The individual we sequenced fits as a mixture of people related to ancient Iranians (the largest component) and Southeast Asian hunter-gatherers, a unique profile that matches ancient DNA from 11 genetic outliers from sites in Iran and Turkmenistan in cultural communication with the IVC. These individuals had little if any Steppe pastoralist-derived ancestry, showing that it was not ubiquitous in northwest South Asia during the IVC as it is today. The Iranian-related ancestry in the IVC derives from a lineage leading to early Iranian farmers, herders, and hunter-gatherers before their ancestors separated, contradicting the hypothesis that the shared ancestry between early Iranians and South Asians reflects a large-scale spread of western Iranian farmers east. Instead, sampled ancient genomes from the Iranian plateau and IVC descend from different groups of hunter-gatherers who began farming without being connected by substantial movement of people.

The study have shown that the ancient South Asian farmers[Read Indian] represented in the IVC[4,000 and 3,500 years ago] had negligible ancestry related to ancient Anatolian[Turkey] farmers, as well as an Iranian-related ancestry component distinct from sampled ancient farmers and herders in Iran.

So the the woman[DNA] not originated from Iran , rather her origin is local.

Read the study :

Veda Samhita Shakh and their Geographical Distribution

Akhanda Bharat

Vedic Samhitas are divided into multiple Sakhas. Sakhas are actually schools. Kanva Sakha and Bajsanehi Sakha of Yayur Veda are same in Mantra collections, the only differs in Swar gram or pronunciations. Both have 40 chapters. a particular group of people reads a particular Sakha.

According to the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, there were 21 shakhas of Rigveda, 9 of Atharvaveda, 101 of Yajurveda (86 of Krishna Yajurveda and 15 of Shukla Yajurveda, according to later authorities) and a 1000 varieties of chanting of Samaveda. ’ Above Samhitas were available at the time of Patanjali .

Two different Vedic shakhas might share one or more texts amongst themselves. Conversely, the distinction between two shakhas of the same Veda might result from the use of a different Samhita text, and/or a different Brahmana text, and/or different Kalpasutra text and so on. For e.g., the Baudhayana and the Apastamba shakhas use the same Taittiriya Brahmana, Taittiriya Samhita and Taittiriya Aranyaka but follow different Kalpasutras. On the other hand, the Shankhayana and the Kaushitaka shakhas use the same Samhita and Shrauta Sutra but their Brahmanas have slightly different readings and their Grhyasutras are quite different.

A group or a community of people who study a particular shakha in its entirety (Samhita + Brahmana + Aranyaka + Kalpasutra + any additional texts) and perform its ritual constitute a ‘charana’. For instance, Brahmins who study the Taittiriya Samhita/Brahmana/Aranyaka together with the Kalpasutra of Apastamba say – “I follow the Apastamba charana’.

In certain cases, we have instances of ‘mixed shakhas’. For instance, the followers of Shakala shakha have adopted the Kalpasutra of Ashvalayana. The Ashvalayana shakha, which had the now well-known Ashvalayana Sutra, has in turn lost oral traditions of its Samhita. Likewise, the Kaushitakins of Kerala often use the Samhita of Shakalas.

Presently following Sakhas are available in the Indian subcontinent though some are near to extinct.  and it is read in a particular region < Such as Kanva Samhita of Yayur Veda is available in Gokarna and Assam region, Vaidiks are available here who are practitioners or this Sakha.


  • Sakala RV:  Previously Sakala Sakha readers were available in Sialkot [Pakistan] and it was collected there.  Several practitioners are available in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu and to some extent in Uttar Pradesh. Nambudiris of Kerala recite even the Brahmana and Aranyaka with accents. Accented manuscripts of Brahmana and Aranyaka are available to this day.
  • Shankhayana Rigveda: Gujarat and parts of Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Oral tradition extinct, only manuscripts of Samhita are extant. Ritual lives in a very fragmentary condition
  • Bashkala RV: All Sakal Mantras are available in Baskal Sakha. The Difference is Chapter arrangement.  Reders are available in Kerala, Rajasthan, Bengal and Assam as a living tradition, but have never been verified. The Samhita exists in manuscript. Nambudiris of Kerala are said to follow this Shakha of RV as far as the Samhita is concerned but studies of their oral tradition do not seem to bear this out.
  • Ashvalayana RV: Manuscripts of the Samhita have been found in Kashmir, Maharashtra (Ahmadnagar) and Patna (Bihar). In parts of central and eastern India, Shakala RV texts are often attributed to Ashvalayana. For instance, the Aitareya Brahman is often called Ashvalayana Brahmana in West Bengal. Oral traditions extinct although the followers of Shakala Shakha in Maharashtra often term themselves as Ashvalayanas because they follow the Kalpasutra (Shrautasutra + Grhyasutra) of Ashvalayana.
  • Paingi RV: Exited in Tamil Nadu, in and around Andavan. Oral traditions lost but Brahmana texts rumored to exist. Pangi rahashya Brahman has been mentioned by Adi Sankara, but it is not available in book form now.
  • Mandukeya RV: Magadha and eastern and central Uttar Pradesh. Possibly lower Himalayas in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.  Brhaddevata and Rigvidhana mentioned it. Mandukya Upanisad is available to us. 


  • Madhyandina YV: Currently found all over North India- Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and even Maharashtra (up to Nashik), West Bengal, Assam, Nepal. Along with Taittiriya Yajurveda, it is the most prevalent Vedic shakha. Followers of this school were found in Sindh (Pakistan) in the 19th century but became extinct after Hindus were ethnically cleansed by the Muslim majority after 1947.
  • Kanva YV: Currently found in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. In Orissa, the followers of this shakha follow a slightly different text. Epigraphic evidence shows that they were once present all over India, as far as Himachal Pradesh and possibly in Nepal.
  • Charaka YV: Interior Maharashtra, adjacent parts of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh. Followers of this shakha now follow the Maitrayani YV shakha, having lost their own texts.
  • Maitrayani YV: In Morvi (Gujarat), parts of Maharashtra (Naskik/Bhadgaon, Nandurbar, Dhule). Earlier, they were spread all the way east up to Allahabad and extended into Rajasthan and possibly into Sindh.
  • Kathaka YV: The oral traditions became extinct possibly a few decades ago. They were found in central and eastern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, possibly west Punjab and NWFP. In later times, they got restricted to Kashmir, where all their extant manuscripts have been unearthed. Recently, the entire Hindu minority was cleansed from the Kashmir valley by Islamists, and so the shakha might be deemed extinct completely now.
  • Charayaniya Katha YV: Existed in Kashmir.
  • Kapisthala Katha YV: Found in West Punjab around the time of the invasion of Alexander. Also in parts of Gujarat. Only a fragmentary Samhita and Grhyasutra text exist, and followers of this shakha are said to exist at the mouths of Narmada and Tapi rivers in Gujarat.
  • Jabala YV: Central India, around the Narmada region. In Maharashtra, there still exist Shukla-Yajurvedin Brahmins who call themselves ‘Jabala Brahmins’, but there is no knowledge of the existence of any texts of this shakha.
  • Taittiriya YV: Buddhist texts and some versions of Ramayana attest their presence in the Gangetic plains but currently they are found all over Southern India. The Taittiriyas are themselves divided into numerous sub-schools. Among these, the followers of Baudhayana and Apastamba were found all over South India (including Maharashtra), while the Hiranyakeshins were found mainly in Konkan and Western Maharashtra. The Vaikhanasas have a more eastern presence- around Tirupati and Chennai. The Vadhulas are present currently in Kerala and earlier in adjacent parts of Tamil Nadu. The Agniveshyas, a subdivision of the Vadhula immigrants from Malabar, are found around Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. The Apastamba, Hiranyakeshin, Vaikhanasa and Baudhayana schools have survived with all their texts intact.


  • Kauthuma SV: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu (tradition revived with the help of Brahmins from Poona), Kerala, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar (tradition revived a century ago), West Bengal (tradition has been revived recently). There are numerous varieties of Kauthuma chanting. This shakha is the most vibrant tradition of Samaveda.
  • Ranayaniya SV: Orissa (manuscripts available, status of oral tradition not known), Maharashtra, Karnataka (the Havyak <you mean havik?> community for instance), Uttar Pradesh (till recently in Bahraich and Mathura), Rajasthan (till recently in Jaipur). The existence of this shakha was endangered till recently, but it has been strengthened with the help of institutions like the Kanchi Kamakoti Matha.
  • Jaiminiya/Talavakara SV: Two distinct sub streams- the Namudiri recitations in Central Kerala, and the recitations of Tamil Nadu Brahmins in districts adjacent to Kerala and in and around Srirangam. The survival of these schools is endangered.
  • Shatyayaniya SV: Said to have been prevalent in Tamil Nadu and parts of North India. The shakha is no longer extant.
  • Gautama SV: Said to have been prevalent in Tamil Nadu and in Andhra Pradesh till the 17th cent. C.E. Many followers of the Kauthuma school in Andhra Pradesh still call themselves ‘Gautamas’.
  • Bhallavi SV: Said to have been prevalent in Karnataka and parts of North India


  • Shaunakiya AV: Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Avadh region in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh. Only Gujarat has maintained the oral traditions, and the shakha has been resuscitated in recent times in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Staudayana AV: According to Majjhima Nikaya, followers of this shakha lived in Koshala (central and eastern Uttar Pradesh). The shakha is completely lost.
  • Paippalada AV: Followers are currently found in parts of Orissa and adjacent areas of Bihar and West Bengal and recite the Samhita in ekasruti (monotone syllable). Epigraphic and literary evidence shows that they once thrived in Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and parts of Gujarat, East Bengal and in Tamil Nadu as well.
  • Devadarshi AV: According to literary evidence, followers of this Shakha once lived in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Other AV shakhas said to have been prevalent in that region were Shaulkayani and Munjakeshi. The shakha is completely lost.
  • Charanavaidya and Jajala AV: Perhaps existed in Gujarat, Central India and adjacent parts of Rajasthan. According to the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas, the Samhita of the Charanavaidya shakha had 6026 mantras.
  •  Mauda AV: The readers were existed in Kashmir, in 1980 due to terrorism libraries were burnt and readers were expelled from the valley. Their Gurukulas were destroyed.

इक्ष्वाकु वंश – Iksvaku Vamsha

हरिश्चन्द्रस्य पुत्रोऽभूद् रोहितो नाम वीर्यवान् ।
रोहितस्य वृकः पुत्रः तस्मात्बाहुरजायत।।२१.३

हरितो रोहितस्याथ धुन्धुस्तस्य सुतोऽभवत् ।
विजयश्च सुदेवश्च धुन्धुपुत्रौ बभूवतुः ।
विजयस्याभवत् पुत्रः कारुको नाम वीर्यवान् ।
सगरस्तस्य पुत्रौऽभूद् राजा परमधार्मिकः ।
द्वे भार्ये सगरस्यापि प्रभा भानुमती तथा ।२१.४

ताभ्यामाराधितः वह्निः प्रादादौ वरमुत्तमम् ।
एकं भानुमती पुत्रमगृह्णादसमञ्जसम् ।२१.५

प्रभा षष्टिसहस्त्रं तु पुत्राणां जगृहे शुभा ।
असमञ्सस्य तनयो ह्यंशुमान् नाम पार्थिवः ।२१.६

तस्य पुत्रो दिलीपस्तु दिलीपात् तु भगीरथः ।
येन भागीरथी गङ्गा तपः कृत्वाऽवतारिता ।२१.७

प्रसादाद् देवदेवस्य महादेवस्य धीमतः ।
भगीरथस्य तपसा देवः प्रीतमना हरः ।२१.८

बभार शिरसा गङ्गां सोमान्ते सोमभूषणः ।
भगीरथसुतश्चापि श्रुतो नाम बभूव ह ।२१.९

नाभागस्तस्य दायादः सिन्धुद्वीपस्ततोऽभवत् ।
अयुतायुः सुतस्तस्य ऋतुपर्णस्तु तत्सुतः ।२१.१०

ऋतुपर्णस्य पुत्रोऽभूत् सुदासो नाम धार्मिकाः ।
सौदासस्तस्य तनयः ख्यातः कल्माषपादकः ।। २१.११

वसिष्ठस्तु महातेजाः क्षेत्रे कल्माषपादके ।
अश्मकं जनयामसा तमिक्ष्वाकुकुलध्वजम् ।। २१.१२

अश्मकस्योत्कलायां तु नकुलो नाम पार्थिवः ।
स हि रामभयाद् राजा वनं प्राप सुदुः खितः ।। २१.१३

विभ्रत् स नारीकवचं तस्माच्छतरथोऽभवत् ।
तस्माद् बिलिबिलिः श्रीमान्‌वृद्धशर्माचतत्सुतः ।। २१.१४

तस्माद् विश्वसहस्तस्मात् खट्वाङ्ग इति विश्रुतः ।
दीर्घबाहुः सुतस्तस्य रघुस्तस्मादजायत ।। २१.१५

रघोरजः समुत्पन्नो राजा दशरथस्ततः ।
रामो दाशरथिर्वोरो धर्मज्ञो लोकविश्रुतः ।। २१.१६

भरतो लक्ष्मणश्चैव शत्रुघ्नश्च महाबलः ।
सर्वे शक्रसमा युद्धे विष्णुशक्तिसमन्विताः ।२१.१७

यज्ञेन यज्ञहन्तारमश्वमेधेन शंकरम् ।
रामस्य तनयो जज्ञे कुश इत्यभिविश्रुतः ।२१.५५

लवश्च सुमहाभागः सर्वतत्त्वार्थवित् सुधीः ।
अतिथिस्तु कुशाज्जज्ञे निषधस्तत्सुतोऽभवत् ।२१.५६

नलस्तु निषधस्याभून्नभास्तमादजायत ।
नभसः पुण्डरीकाक्षः क्षेमधन्वा च तत्सुतः ।२१.५७

तस्य पुत्रोऽभवद् वीरो देवानीकः प्रतापवान् ।
अहीनगुस्तस्य सुतो सहस्वांस्तत्सुतोऽभवत् ।२१.५८

तस्माच्चन्द्रावलोकस्तु तारापीडस्तु तत्सुतः ।
तारापीडाच्चन्द्रगिरिर्भानुवित्तस्ततोऽभवत् ।२१.५९

श्रुतायुरभवत् तस्मादेते इक्ष्वाकुवंशजाः ।
सर्वे प्राधान्यतः प्रोक्ताः समासेन द्विजोत्तमाः ।। २१.६०

Source : श्रीकूर्मपुराणे पूर्वविभागे एकविशोऽध्यायः

पुराण लक्षणम् – Purana Lakshanam

Sanskrit Documents

सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च ।
वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ।। १.१२

ब्राह्मं पुराणं प्रथमं पाद्मं वैष्णवमेव च ।
शैवं भागवतं चैव भविष्यं नारदीयकम् ।। १.१३

मार्कण्डेयमथाग्नेयं ब्रह्मवैवर्तमेव च ।
लैङ्गं तथा च वाराहं स्कान्दं वामनमेव च ।। १.१४

कौर्म्मं मात्स्यं गारुडं च वायवीयमनन्तरम् ।
अष्टादशं समुद्दिष्टं ब्रह्मण्डमिति संज्ञितम् ।। १.१५

अन्यान्युपपुराणानि मुनिभिः कथितानि तु ।
अष्टादशपुराणानि श्रुत्वा संक्षेपतो द्विजाः ।। १.१६

आद्यं सनत्कुमारोक्तं नारसिहमतः परम् ।
तृतीयं स्कान्दमुद्दिष्टं कुमारेण तु भाषितम् ।। १.१७

चतुर्थं शिवधर्माख्यं साक्षान्नन्दीशभाषितम् ।
दुर्वाससोक्तमाश्चर्यं नारदीयमतः परम् ।। १.१८

कापिलं वामनं चैव तथैवोशनसेरितम् ।
ब्रह्माण्डं वारुणं चैव कालिकाह्वयमेव च ।। १.१९

माहेश्वरं तथा साम्बं सौरं सर्वार्थसञ्चयम् ।
पराशरोक्तं मारीचं भार्गवाह्वयम् ।। १.२०

इदं तु पञ्चदशकं पुराणं कौर्ममुत्तमम् ।
चतुर्द्धा संस्थितं पुण्यं संहितानां प्रभेदतः ।। १.२१

ब्राह्मी भागवती सौरी वैष्णवी च प्रकीर्तिताः ।
चतस्त्रः संहिताः पुण्या धर्मकामार्थमोक्षदाः ।। १.२२

इयं तु संहिता ब्राह्मी चतुर्वेदैस्तु सम्मिता ।
भवन्ति षट्‌सहस्राणि श्लोकानामत्र संख्यया ।। १.२३

यत्र धर्मार्थकामानां मोक्षस्य च मुनीश्वराः ।
माहात्म्यमखिलं ब्रह्म ज्ञायते परमेश्वरः ।। १.२४

सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च ।
वंशानुचरितं पुण्या दिव्या प्रासङ्गिकी कथाः ।। १.२५

श्रीकूर्मपुराणे  पूर्वविभागे  प्रथमोऽध्यायः ।।


Pre-Iron age [2000 BCE] chariot found in an excavation in  Bagpat District of UP  gives ‘new dimension to the Indian history’. On June 04, 2018, the archaeological team unveiled the excavations showing these burial pits with chariots from the pre-iron age. Among Rig Vedic deities, notably Ushas (the dawn) and Agni were chariot rider.


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“The discovery of a chariot puts us on a par with other ancient civilizations, like Mesopotamia, Greece, etc. where chariots were extensively used. It seems a warrior class thrived in this region in the past,” said SK Manjul who is co-director of Excavations and ASI’s Institute of Archaeology in Delhi.

Manjul termed the digging drive a “path-breaking” one, also because of the copper plated anthropomorphic figures – having horns and peepal-leafed crowns – found on the coffins, that indicated a possibility of “royal burials”.

“For the first time in the entire sub-continent, we have found this kind of a coffin. The cover is highly decorated with eight anthropomorphic figures. The sides of the coffins are also decorated with floral motifs,” Manjul said.

While coffins have been discovered during past excavations in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Dholavira (Gujarat), but never with copper decorations, he added.