Descriptive questions on Indian Penal Code [Beginner Level]


1.What are the mitigating factors? Discuss the factors responsible for variations in criminal liability.

2.“The intent and the act must both concur to constitute a crime”. Explain this statement with reference.

3. Write a note on “wrongful gain and wrongful loss”. What is Undue enrichment? 

4. What is Private defence? When does the right of private defence of the body extend to cause death?

5. Who is an ‘abettor’? What is abetment of a thing? A man said his wife to bring money from her father – the woman committed suicide after 15 days – whether the husband can be charged with the offence of abetting dowry death? 

6. Write a note on election offences. Election offence must be dealt with rigorously – explain.

7. Distinguish ‘rioting from affray’. Explain Communal violence.

8. State the circumstances when culpable homicide does not amount to murder? What are the aggravating factors?

9. What is wrongful restraint? Distinguish it from wrongful confinement. The students made a ‘Gherao’ of the principal of a college – is any justification available to the students? 

10. Distinguish hurt from grievous hurt. In a police firing, a man lost his left eye whether he can lodge an FIR against the police for grievous hurt?

11. Write a note on criminal force and assault. Police used a third Degree to get evidence from a murder case accused – explain the consequences. 

12. What is Kidnapping? Distinguish it from abduction. Age is a factor in Kidnapping – explain.

13. How do theft and extortion become robbery? When a robbery can be branded as Dacoity? 

14. State briefly criminal misappropriation of property and criminal breach trust.

15.Write a note on cheating. Whether the element of Cheating is the essential ingredient for criminal breach of trust?

16.Discuss criminal trespass. How does it differ from housebreaking? Refer to cases.

17.What is defamation? State the exceptions. Whether a man could be competent to institute both civil and criminal cases against the same offender? 

18. Write a note on ‘Mischief’.  How it is different from cheating?

19. State the ingredients of adultery. Whether a son can complain for his father`s second marriage?

20. What is mens rea? State its significance in statutory offences. When means rea is not necessary to prove an offence?

21. Whether a girl aged 15 years could be charged with the offence of murder?

22. Solitary confinement. How long one could be put in an isolated cell at a time?

23. Define public servant. How they are different from Government servant?

24. Explain the nature and extent of unsoundness of mind required to exempt a person from criminal liability. Refer to leading cases.

25. What is giving false evidence? Distinguish it from fabricating false evidence.

26. What is Criminal conspiracy? Whether a single man can indulge in Conspiracy?

27. A instigated B to murder D. B in pursuance of the instigation stabs D. D recovers from the wound. What is the liability of A?

28. What is hurt ? Explain the circumstances under which hurt becomes grievous hurt. Illustrate.

29. What is force? When does it become a criminal force? Justify lathi charging by police in VIP duty. 

30. Write the ingredients of the offence of Causing miscarriage. whether a mother can be charged for causing the miscarriage of her 14-week fetus? 

31. A builds a wall across a path along which B has a right to pass, B is thereby prevented from passing. What is the offence committed by A?

32. What is kidnapping from lawful guardianship? A 16 years boy elope with a 17 years girl – who is the offender in this case?

33. Define criminal breach of trust by a government servant. Whether a man appointed to stock Government food grain for flood relief sold it in the market shall be convicted for criminal breach of trust on proof?

34. What is an Unnatural offence? Whether consensual sex between two adults be considered as an offence.

35. Hindustan Transport Company is entrusted by ‘A’ with property to be carried by land. The carrier company dishonestly mis-used the property. What is the offence that carrier company committed?

36. Explain forgery. When a person is said to have made a false document?

37. Define adultery. When does the second marriage becomes an offence? Whether a Muslim can be charged for engaging third marriage. Whether ‘Nikaha Hala’ is adultery?

38. Define defamation. Whether posting some materials in FaceBook amounts to defamation?

39. Attempt to commit offence. How to distinguish that whether a man attempted to murder or grievous hurt, given that an accused was arrested with a iron rod .

40. What are the theories of awarding punishment? In the Indian scenario where the rate of education is low – which theory could be best for the society?

41. Write a note on solitary confinement. Whether a juvenile can be kept in solitary confinement – Refer Juvenile Justice act.

42. What is a crime ? Explain the difference between Crime and Tort. Whether a slight hurt is a crime?

43. Explain the offence of Dowry death. What are the defiances available the accused husband in trial?

44. What is rape? Can a man be guilty of the offence of rape against his own wife? Whether compelling the wife at the time of judicial separation is offensive?

45. A wife poisoned his husband in Dubai, the husband died in Dubai – what shall be consequences when the wife would come back in India?

46. A man committed rape to a minor girl – police applied POCSO Act – whether the non- application of IPC could be justified?

47. What is valuable security? A man selling some old Postal Stamps before the General post office of Kolkata – Police arrested him – whether he is guilty?

48. The maxim ‘Ignorantia juris non excusat; (ignorance of law excuses Non) explain in relation to its application to criminal offences.

49. Mc Nanghten’s rule in section 84 of IPC, distinguishes between Legal insanity and medical insanity- discuss.

50. Distinguish between Common Intention and Common object. Ten people gathered with sticks to attack a police station – whether they can be charged with both Common Intention and Common object.

Additional questions 

  • An attempt to commit a crime must be distinguished from an Intention to commit it. Discuss with reference to section 511 of IPC. 
  • Explain the Doctrine of transferred malice.
  • In the scheme of the IPC, Culpable homicide (section 299) is Genus and murder is species. All murder is culpable homicide but vice versa. Discuss.
  • Accused offered a child to a crocodile under a superstition but Bonafide belief that the child will be returned unharmed, and it was killed. Discuss the offence of the father. 
  • A Government officer removes a file to his office, makes it Available to an outsider and then returns it after two days. Has He committed theft?
  • Explain Rarest of the rare case?
  • Write a Note ” Rape committed by a number of persons”.
  • Write a Note “Offences punishable under Sections 147, 148, 307, 302, 459, 460, 120B, 118, and 176 read with Section 149 of the Indian Penal Code by  offenders”
  • “Any member of the unlawful assembly can be prosecuted for the criminal act; it need not to be proved that he had committed an overt act”- Explain
  • “Section 149 makes it clear that if an offence is committed by any member of an unlawful assembly in prosecution of the common object of that assembly, or such as the members of that assembly knew to be likely to be committed in prosecution of that object, every person who, at the time of the committing of that offence, is a member of the same assembly, is guilty of that offence; and that emphatically brings out the principle that the punishment prescribed by Section 149 is in a sense vicarious and does not always proceed on the basis that the offence has been actually committed by every member of the unlawful assembly.” -Explain in the light of  Prabhu Dayal Vs. State of Rajasthan [Criminal Appeal No. 2324 of 2014].
  • “After considering the material on record, we are of the considered view that the Appellant is not liable for conviction under Section 302 IPC. There is no evidence to show that the murder of Ram Kumar Sahu was a premeditated one. We are convinced that the Appellant did not have any intention to kill Ram Kumar Sahu. However, Appellant swung the tangi which hit Ram Kumar Sahu on his head and due to the said injury Ram Kumar Sahu had died. In conclusion, the Appellant’s conviction under Section 302 IPC is set aside. The Appellant is, however, convicted under Section 304 (Part II) IPC and sentenced to undergo imprisonment for a period of seven years ” -Explain.

  • “It is not in dispute that the injured, Smt. Honnamma (PW.23) sustained a grievous injury as a result of an assault by the appellant. She was referred to a neurologist for an expert opinion inasmuch as she had sustained an incised wound over the left parietal area. She had also sustained a fracture at the lower end of her right forearm. Since the evidence of PW.23 in respect of an overt act by the accused in injuring Smt. Honnamma is believable, in our considered opinion, the High Court was justified in convicting the appellant for the offence under Section 326, IPC” – Write the ingredient of section 326 of IPC.
  • Does the swearing of the false Affidavits amount to an offence under S. 199, Indian Penal Code or under either S. 191 or 192. Indian Penal Code?

Short Notes :

  1. Punishment of Fine
  2. Joint liability
  3. Meeting of mind
  4. Good faith
  5. Plea of Insanity
  6. Conspiracy for murder, but later it was not committed.
  7. Charge of sedition
  8. Constructive liability
  9. Harbouring an offender
  10. Public nuisance
  11. Food adulteration
  12. Section 498A vs section 306 of IPC
  13. Arrest without authority
  14. Presumption of innocence
  15. Vicarious liability under Section 149 Indian Penal Code

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