COMPUTER

Basic Information and Cyber Law Glossary

GLOSSARY WATCH

(technical )

Algorithms: Algorithms are essentially a set of well-defined finite sequence instructions used towards finishing a task. Algorithms are used extensively in computer science, bio-informatics, mathematics et al for calculation, data processing and other tasks. A computer program is one of the most basic.

Bandwidth: In the realm of computer networks, bandwidth refers to the capacity of data/information which can be carried through a channel (typically from website or server) in a given time interval. Bandwidth is thus a synonym for data transfer. As more information is carried through the channel greater is the use of bandwidth. So logically, a video would take up much more bandwidth than for example an e-mail. A bandwidth shortage is said to have occurred when at any point the demand to carry information exceeds the carrier or channel’s capacity.  A bandwidth is typically expressed in bits per second (bps).

Black Box:  A black box is a device which records the data typically in aircraft or ships and which can be retrieved in case of any eventuality.  However, in software development a Black box assumes a different meaning. A Black Box is a testing technique where the tester does not have any knowledge of the intricacies of the program being tested. The tester may know about the input or the output but does not have any inkling of how the results are achieved. A Black Box component is a compiled program that cannot be altered as a programmer is able to access it only through an exposed interface.

Blast: In bioinformatics, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool or BLAST consists of a set of algorithms. BLAST is used to compare biological sequences like protein sequences or nucleotides. With BLAST a comparison of individual sequence can be done against a database of sequences and information obtained in case there is matching of sequences. Thus, BLAST can be applied for aligning two sequences and examining the resemblance between two or more sequences.

Biometry: Biometry, or Biometrics, is a division of Biology that uses statistical applications for conducting the study of living things. Biometric tools are widely used in studying growth, biological similarities and differences, authentication of individuals based on his/ her behavioural and physiological characteristics.

Body Area Networks: Body Area Networks, BAN in short is an emerging field of technology that has the potential to revolutionize healthcare and pathbreaking applications in sports, communications and security.  The technology leverages wireless communications protocols allowing low-powered sensors to intra-communicate and then transmit data to a local base station as well as to remote corners.  An example of BAN is placing of small flat sensors on or under the skin of patients so that doctors are able to monitor real time data, (the bio-signs) emanating from their patients.

Border Gateway Protocol: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Protocol addresses the issue of optimal routing path determination in modern networks.
In today’s Transmission-Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks it is the BGP that performs inter-domain routing. BGP has replaced the now obsolete Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), its predecessor, as the core gateway-routing protocol for use in the global Internet.

Broadband: A word that is tossed up every now and then when talking about Internet and Telecom is the Broadband. To download games, checking on your Twitter or Facebook profile or watch video all you need is internet broadband connection. A broadband channel is able to carry multiple signals. The overall capacity is divided into multiple, independent bandwidth channels with each channel operating on a specific frequency range. A broadband is also known as a high-speed internet service.

Browser: A Browser is an user agent or a Software that allows a user to search, access and interact with different types of information on the Web.

Enterprise Resource Management: Enterprise Resource Management is a software tool for a systematic tracking of all that flows through a business. These include capital, manpower, inventory, ctc……. ERM is considered crucial for the efficiency and productivity of any organization.

Ethernet: Ethernet is a standard communications protocol and is the most popular technology for building a local area network (LAN). The Ethernet Technology has traversed a long distance from 1980s when it was first deployed widely, to modern Gigabit Ethernet technology displaying peak performance speeds up to 1000 Mbps. Internet Protocol (IP) and other high level network protocols use Ethernet for their mode of transmission.

Fiber Optics: Fiber Optics is essentially strands of optically pure glass or plastics that have revolutionized telecommunications-telephony, internet, cable TV et al. As thin as human hairs Fiber Optic lines are used for transmitting digital signals over long distances including under the sea. Optical Fibers are bundled up into thick optical cables for   transmitting light signals.Along with telecommunications, Optical fibers are also finding extensive use in medical and defence applications.

Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA): Field Programmable Gate array (FPGA) devices find extensive use in the logic or digital electronic circuits. An FPGA consists of Integrated circuits (IC). The IC includes a 2D array of general-purpose logic circuits, termed as logic blocks or cells. Their functions are programmable. All the cells are interlinked by programmable buses. The basic architecture of an FPGA device consists an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) which are embedded in a configurable interconnect structure. On all sides of the CLBS are the configurable I/O blocks (IOBs). FPGA technology applications find wide use in different spheres, right from equipment for video and imaging, circuitry for spacecraft and other strategic applications requiring high reliability and extreme environment applications.

Fluorescence Correlation Spectrometers: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a single-molecule detection technique for high-sensitivity measurement of molecular interactions. Unique features of FCS measurements make it ideal for use in assaying techniques.

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a 3rd generation digital cellular technology. It is quite popular in the highly competitive cellular service market.  A speciality of CDMA is that it makes available more bandwidth without limiting the frequency range of individual users in the communications network. This facilitates more number of users to communicate on the same network at any given point of time.

C-GREX: C-GREx or Chaos Game Representation Explorer is a handy Bioinformatics tool for exploring the sequence visualization and pattern analysis of biological sequences including RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences.

Cloud Computing: Cloud Computing is an emerging IT delivery model characterized by the new-age, internet-driven economics for increasing the capacities or adding capabilities without investment needs in infrastructure, training or software licensing. Today Cloud Computing is the new lingo for all the IT executives. In Cloud Computing, cloud is only a metaphor. It refers to the range of servers located remotely which hosts computing applications. A very simple illustration of what Cloud Computing Technology is all about is the email applications such as yahoomail or hotmail. Also, if you are using google docs in place of MS word on your Laptop you are very much part of the Cloud Computing environment. Cloud computing benefits include superior user experience, improved workload optimization and service delivery, reduced IT costs and complexities et al. Some of the common examples of Cloud Computing include SaaS (software as a service), MSP ((managed service providers), Utility computing et al.  Cloud Computing is finding its utility in several enterprise applications.

Clustal W: Clustal W is a general purpose alignment program for DNA and proteins. Clustal W boasts of an improved sensitivity for aligning divergent protein sequences.

Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis traces its origin from two Greek words. Kryptós means “hidden” while analýein means ‘to loosen’ or ‘to untie’.  It is the practice of codebreaking or cracking the code. Cryptanalysis is the study of methods to get to the exact meaning of encrypted information and typically involves finding a secret key. Thus meaning is obtained without access to the secret information which is general requirement for doing so. In the days of Cyber security threats Cryptanalysis assumes a lot of significance.

Capacitive Accelerometer: Capacitive accelerometers are among the most commercially popular Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). They are used in engine vibration tests, product shakers, fatigue testing, structural evaluation and a host of other applications. A Capacitive Accelerometer operates on the premise that, there is a repeatable change in capacitance whenever a sensing structure gets deflected due to an imposed acceleration. A Capacitive Accelerometer is similar in operation to a Piezoresistive Accelerometer but is comparatively more sensitive.  Some of the notable features of Capacitive Accelerometers are excellent frequency coverage, high level output signal and immunity to noise interference et al.

Carbon Nanotubes: Carbon Nanotubes are essentially molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon displaying electronic and other remarkable properties. The extremely thin Carbon Nanotubes with diameters about 10,000 times smaller than a human hair can be counted among the stiffest and strongest fibres.

Country Code Top level Domain (ccTLD): TLDs with two letters (such as .in – India, .cn-China, .fr- France, .kr -South Korea, .uk – United Kingdom etc) have been established for more than 250 countries and external territories. These are referred to as “country-code” TLDs or judt “ccTLDs”. ccTLDs are assigned by IANA or Internet Assigned Numbers Authority based on the ISO 3166-1alpha-2 country codes. Designated managers operate the ccTLDs according to local policies, which are adapted to meet the specific needs of the country or territory involved such as economic, linguistic, cultural and legal circumstances.

Cognitive Science: Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field encompassing a broad range of both intertwining and contradictory theories about how thinking takes place, how information gets represented and transformed in the brain. Cognitive Science combines insights from several disciplines including artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics et al.

CMOS: CMOS or Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor is one of the most popular semiconductor fabrication technology characterized by low energy consumption and high switching speeds. CMOS are semiconductors, used extensively in digital logic circuits, such as microprocessors, static RAM and microcontrollers. The reason for the name complementary stems from the fact that both n- and p-MOSFETs are needed by Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) circuits.

Contactless Smart Card: A Contactless Smart Card is used for applications where protecting personal information is paramount along with delivering secure and quick transactions. Some of the common applications include identity cards, payment cards, electronic passports et al. In mass transit systems, Contactless Smart Cards are ideal choice as they can be used without the need for taking out the cards from the purse. Contactless Smart Cards contain embedded smart card secure microcontrollers, internal memory and small antennas. The communication between the chip and the reader takes place through a contactless radio frequency (RF) interface.

 

[D]

DATA : means information in a form in which it can be processed

PERSONAL DATA : “personal data” means data relating to a living individual who can be identified either from the data or from the data in conjunction with other information in the possession of the data controller

 

Dielectric Materials: Dielectric Materials are characterized very low electrical conductivity thus they find extensive use in electronics and electrical components. In Dielectric materials electrical fields are sustained with minimal chances for leakage. Solids like glass, plastics, mica and porcelain (ceramic) are good Dielectric materials. A major application of Dielectric materials is in Semiconductor Chips where they are used for insulating transistors from each other.

Decision-Feedback Equalizers: Decision-Feedback Equalizers are nonlinear Equalizers having a forward and feedback filter. A primary advantage of using DFE is that it can cancel ISI (inter-symbol interference) as well as minimize noise enhancement in high speed data communications.

Domain-Name System (DNS): The Domain-Name System (DNS) of the Internet makes it possible for users to refer to Websites as well as other resources using the convenience of domain names (such as “www.icann.org(link is external)“) that are easy to remember in place of all-numeric complex IP addresses that are assigned to each computer on the World Wide Web. The domain names are made up of a series of character strings (also known as “labels”) which are separated by dots. TLD(top-level domain) is the name given to the right-most label in a domain. There are essentially two types of TLDs within the DNS. One is called the Country Code Top level Domain (ccTLD) and the other is known as Generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs).

Dot Net: Dot Net (.NET) is a Microsoft software application running on the Windows OS.  It provides necessary tools and libraries to the developers enabling them to create Windows software easily and quickly. End users can benefit from Dot Net by getting high quality and secured applications.

Domain Name System: The Domain Name System or DNS in short is a distributed internet directory service. In simple terms it provides the way to locate the internet domains and translate them into IP (Internet Protocols) addresses. The importance of DNS can be understood from the fact that if DNS is slow or fails to work we would not be able to locate web addresses and email transfers stalled.

Enterprise Resource Management: Enterprise Resource Management is a software tool for a systematic tracking of all that flows through a business. These include capital, manpower, inventory, time et al. ERM is considered crucial for the efficiency and productivity of any organization.

 

Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA): Field Programmable Gate array (FPGA) devices find extensive use in the logic or digital electronic circuits. An FPGA consists of Integrated circuits (IC). The IC includes a 2D array of general-purpose logic circuits, termed as logic blocks or cells. Their functions are programmable. All the cells are interlinked by programmable buses. The basic architecture of an FPGA device consists an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) which are embedded in a configurable interconnect structure. On all sides of the CLBS are the configurable I/O blocks (IOBs). FPGA technology applications find wide use in different spheres, right from equipment for video and imaging, circuitry for spacecraft and other strategic applications requiring high reliability and extreme environment applications.

Fluorescence Correlation Spectrometers: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a single-molecule detection technique for high-sensitivity measurement of molecular interactions. Unique features of FCS measurements make it ideal for use in assaying techniques.

 

Game Theory: Game Theory refers to a mathematical model of devising an optimum strategy in various fields like economics and biology to a given situation where players have choice of limited and fixed options.

Gigabit: A Gigabit (represented as Gb) of data is a unit of measurement for use in computers. One Gigabit equals one billion bits of data.  A Gigabit of data defined as above should not be confused with a Gigabit of Internet bandwidth.

Gene: A Gene refers to the basic unit of heredity found in living organisms. Genes contain a long strand of DNA storing the data to build and maintain cells and then pass the genetic information to the offspring.

Genotype: In the broadest sense Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an organism or a virus.

Grid Computing: Grid Computing facilitates sharing of tasks over multiple computers. With Grid computing techniques resources of multiple machines can be used for performing data storage and complex calculations spread across geographical distances.

GNU Compiler Collection: The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), is counted amongst the most popular compilers used now. GCC is a complete set of tools for compiling programs in C, C++, Objective C, JAVA et al.  The features of GCC which make them much sought after includes multilevel source code error checking, debugging information,  different levels of optimizations and generating code for more than 30 different computer architectures.

GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. It is one of the most advanced digital technologies available in the cellular marketplace. GSM wireless technology has spread its wings to more than 214 countries worldwide. In GSM wireless telephony Voice data is digitized and compressed.  Subsequently it is send across a channel along with two other streams of user data each according to its own time slot. GSM can operate at 900, 1800 or 1,900MHz frequency. Generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs): “generic” TLDs, or just “gTLDs” are TLDs with three or more characters. gTLDs can be further subdivided into two types, namely “sponsored” TLDs (sTLDs) and “unsponsored” TLDs (uTLDs). These are essentially International, private and commercial domain names which can be registered from anywhere in the world and are governed by the processes directly by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), USA.

 

HVAC: HVAC acronym stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning. These three together are closely related fundamental functions at home, workplace or any other building.  The primary use of HVAC or Climate Control is for regulating room temperature, airflow and humidity so as to ensure they remain within acceptable range and provide comfort.

 

Infrared: Infrared is an energy radiation having a frequency invisible to our eyes. Infrared is widely used in communication and control devices. Integrated Circuits: Integrated Circuits (ICs) are also known as chips. ICs are etched onto tiny semiconductor (silicon) chips. Complex integrated circuits are used in most of today’s electronic gadgets and equipment.

Intelligent Home: Intelligent Homes are the new age wired-homes allowing to have a control of all the aspects of home environment. These include lighting, security, telecom, appliances, climate, music et al from any locations. A single point remote or keypad controls every aspect of the home.

Intelligent Transportation Systems: In simple terms, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) refers to use of computers and different forms of communications technologies to solve the problems of transportation. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) facilitates collection of relevant data and intelligence for a proper implementation of a plan for smooth flow of traffic and other transport management issues.

Intelligent Sensors: Intelligent sensors are smart devices having Signal Processing functions which are shared by distributed machine intelligence. Robots which have the ability to perceive and reason are good example of Intelligent Sensors. Intelligent Sensors are now widely used in industrial setups in harsh environments detrimental to human safety.

Intranet and the Internet :Intranet and the website accessible on the open Internet are essentially two distinct information spaces. There are a number of differences between the two along various dimensions. It is always a good idea to have a separate user interface design to maintain such distinction. This is important because the users should readily know when they are on the internal net (Intranet) and the moment they access the World Wide Web. Further, a different design will also aid in better navigating, sense of place and a clear understanding of information management (information which is internal, secure and confidential vis-à-vis information which is freely shared).

Some of the major differences between an Intranet and the Internet are highlighted here:

  • Nature of Users: Access to Intranet is mostly open to employees of organisations having a fair idea about the company, its operations, organizational structure, terminologies and circumstances. Access is password protected and accessible only to employees or authorized users. Whereas an Internet site is more of a public face of an organisation accessed by customers with limited knowledge about it and not very keen to know about its day to day functioning.
  • Nature of Tasks: Intranet applies for facilitating the day to day work within an organisation, this may include complex applications whereas an Internet site maintained by an organisation is for the world to know what it does, product details et al.
  • Type and Quantum of Information: The Intranet verily by its nature will assimilate a variety of detailed information- draft reports, project status reports, HR information, internal progress and other information, whereas the Internet site primarily delves into more of marketing information as well as customer support information. The amount of information generated also differs. Typically, Intranet contains much more number of pages as compared to an organisation’s website. This can go even upto 100 times. This is chiefly because works by many departments are well documented on the Intranet even though they never publish anything publicly (on the internet).
  • Navigational System: An Intranet is generally supported by a stronger navigational system as compared to an Internet site. This is because Intranet encompasses a larger volume of information. A navigation system in an Intranet also facilitates movement between Servers whereas an internet public website is required to support within-site navigation.
  • Design: An Intranet design typically is focussed more on task-orientation and less flashy. There is generally a single Intranet design. An Intranet can be enriched with a large number of options and features without intimidating or overwhelming the users, which can be the case on the open Internet with rapid surfing between sites.
  • Bandwidth Specifications: Intranets may be accessible from the Internet but their speed is often much faster than Websites typically stuck at low-band or mid-band, server breakdowns and other problems. So it is not uncommon to see applications such as multimedia, rich graphics and other advanced high-bandwidth content, such as audio and video on Intranet pages.

Internet Protocol: Internet Protocol refers to the set of techniques for transmission of data over the Internet. Devices connected to a network, internet or even a local area network (LAN) is assigned an Internet Protocol number. This address helps in unique identification of the device among all other devices which are connected to the extended network.

Interactive Voice Response: An Interactive Voice Response (IVR) System allows callers to create complex voice response system over the telephone. IVR is very useful in providing 24×7 automated customer service and reducing clerical processing.

IPV6: Internet Protocol Version 6 or IPv6 in short is the next generation Internet Protocol for taking the place of the current IP version, IPV4( Internet Protocol, Version 4). IPV6 boasts of a lot of improvement over IPV4 in terms of routing, number of available addresses and network autoconfiguration.

In Silico Analysis: In Silico Analysis refers to performing an analysis using computers in tandem with informatics capabilities.

 

[L]

LASER: Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation or LASER in short is a device that concentrates light into a narrow beam. The light thus produced is intense, coherent and unidirectional.  LASER has a wide variety of application in eye surgery (LASIK), high-speed metal cutting machines, CD players, hair replacement et al.

Ligand: Ligand is a term used for referring to small molecule or functional group that is bound to other larger molecule, such as carbohydrate, protein or lipid, inducing a biological activity.

LINAC: A Linear Accelerator (LINAC) is a particle accelerator commonly used for external beam radiation treatments of cancer patients. LINAc uses microwave technology to accelerate charged particles.

Linux: Linux is a free Unix-type OS (operating system), the source code for Linux is freely accessible to all users.

Lab-on-a-Chip: Lab-on-a-Chip devices have made it possible to conduct laboratory experiments on a small-scale and outside the confines of a laboratory. With Lab-on-a-Chip devices, medical diagnostics, chemical synthesis, studying complex cellular processes has just become easier.

 

Millimeter Wave: Millimeter Wave Technology is a technology to transmit signals at comparatively high frequencies.  Millimeter Wave Technology is increasingly making its mark commercially. In imaging applications at Airports and high security threat areas,   Millimeter Wave technology can bounce non-harmful electromagnetic waves off the passenger’s body and producing a black and white three-dimensional image. Other than security applications the technology also finds increasing use in communications and traffic-control systems.

Microprocessor: A microprocessor aka CPU (central processing unit) is the brain of the computer whether a desktop or Laptop.  It is a complete computation engine fabricated on a on a single integrated circuit or chip.MEMS Technology: Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology for making microscopic machines. Using microfabrication technology, MEMS integrates actuators, mechanical elements, sensors and electronics on a common silicon substrate. MEMS is a groundbreaking technology which makes possible the realization of a complete systems-on-a-chip by fusion of silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology.

MOSFET: MOSFET or Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor technology is today one of the most popular semiconductor techniques. It is considered a key element in integrated circuit technology. The MOSFET devices can be split into various categories such as N-channel, P-channel, Depletion mode and Enhancement mode MOSFET. In most of the modern devices the transition from bipolar transistors to MOSFETs is complete. A typical MOSFET contains an n-(p-) doped silicon substrate along with two, highly p-(n-) doped contacts- drain and a source. The channel region in between is covered by the gate oxide, a thin insulating layer. The gate-oxide remains in touch with the gate electrode.

MC-CDMA: Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access or MCC-DMA is a relatively new concept to be used in telecommunication systems. MC-CDMA is a combination of OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) and CDMA (code division multiple access) both radio access techniques.

Metadata: Metadata essentially provides a description about other data. For example in a webpage the information about the content is provided by metadata. Web pages include metadata by way of Meta tags. Search engines use this data while adding pages of websites to their search indices.

 

Nanometrology: Nanometrology essentially refers to the science of measurement at nanoscale level. Nanometrology has a crucial role in manufacturing technology- producing nanomaterials and devices where the requirements are highly demanding. Moving from manufacturing, Nanometrology now encompasses measurement of species or events on a nano-scale also.

 

Optoelectronics: Optoelectronics also known alternately as Photonics is a branch of physics, especially electronics that uses light for processing and transferring data. Optoelectronics is today an integral part of everyday life. Devices like Barcode reader, CD player, TV remote control are few examples of Optoelectronics.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of broadband multicarrier modulation. In this method, a signal is allowed to split into numerous narrowband channels at varying frequencies. In the UHF and microwave spectrum, OFDM is fine with high-speed digital data transmission, superior performance and wide benefits.

Ontology: In the realm of IT and Computer Science, Ontology refers to the exact description of things as well as their relationships. In the context of web, Ontology is precisely describing the web information and relationships between web information.

Orca: Orca is a free, open source, screen reading and magnification software for visually challenged people.

Parallel Processing: Parallel Processing refers to the technique of using two or more microprocessors in tandem to process a common assignment for obtaining faster results. The computer resources can be a number of computers interconnected via a network or a single computer with multiple processors or both. Data is accessed by processors through shared memory. Projects such as weather modelling and digital special effects requiring complex computations take the help of Parallel Processing.

Polyketide Synthase: Polyketides are valuable therapeutic agents produced as secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants and few animals. They display a diverse range of biological activities and are pharmacologically very important. Polyketides gets synthesised by sequential reactions, with a family of enzyme called PKSs (Polyketide Synthases) acting as a catalyst.

Pyrolysis: Pyrolysis refers to a process of incineration or heating to decompose organic materials without oxygen. As a result, the hazardous organic materials get transformed to small traces of liquids, gases and solid residues. A Pyrolysis process typically targets contaminant groups such as SVOCs and pesticides.

Proteomic: In Bioinformatics, Proteomic refers to identification of proteins in the body. Proteomic makes it possible to link the genome sequence and the cellular behaviour.

Photoluminescence: The term Photoluminescence describes a highly sensitive spectroscopic method for process control and development of semiconductors. In this method light is first absorbed generating an excited state. Subsequently, upon relaxation light of lower energy is re-emitted to a ground state.

Perovskite: Perovskite is a relatively minor mineral but is much sought after for its rare earth metal content. It has a formula CaTiO3. Perovskite gets its name from Russian mineralogist, Count Lev Aleksevich von Perovski.

Plasma Display Panels: Plasma Display Panels or PDPs are now very popular in consumer electronics products with their use in flat-panel TVs and computer monitors.  Plasma monitors make use of fixed matrix technologies. PDPs display excellent picture quality, wider viewing angle along with a host of other features at the same time being eco-friendly.

Perceptual Psychology: Perceptual psychology is a subset of cognitive psychology that is concerned on processing of sensory information.

Perceptual Robotics: Perceptual Robotics is a science that links neuroscience with robotics.

 

CAD: Q-CAD is an easy to handle and highly effective software for creating quilting patterns graphically.

 

Rare Earth Doped Fiber: Rare Earth Doped Fiber is a special type of Optical Fiber, where ions of rare-earth elements like Erbium(Er), Neodymium (Nd) or Holmium (Ho), is incorporated into the Glass Core matrix. This results in high absorption with low loss performances in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions.

Reconfigurable Computing: Reconfigurable computing is a combination of hardware and software. In the Reconfgurable Computing platform Processors like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), after modification at the hardware level can perform numerous processing tasks.

Remote Sensing: Remote Sensing refers to the science of garnering data/information based on some property (temporal, spectral and spatial) which concerns areas, objects or even a phenomenon.  Interestingly, the recording devices would not be coming into physical contact with the things under surveillance (objects or area or phenomenon)Resilient Packet Ring (RPR): Resilient Packet Ring technology, designed to carry packet traffic efficiently over rings, is a geographically bifurcated “distributed switching” architecture characterised by extensive performance monitoring and network restoration and offering highly flexible deployment choices. The standardized technology specified by IEEE 802.17 standard is designed to bring sub-50ms ring-based resiliency to packet-switched network architecture. RPR effectively addresses the problems and limitations associated with voice and data networks. As a single common network it efficiently handles voice over IP (VoIP), Ethernet and IP, video et al

Radio Frequency: Radio Frequency (RF or rf): Radio Frequency refers to the generation of electromagnetic wave or field when alternating electrical current with specific features is fed to an antenna. RF is used for wireless broadcast and communication over long distances.

 

SaaS (Software-As-A-Service): Software as a Service abbreviated as SaaS is a popular software distribution model, with customers getting delivery of the software over the World Wide Web (WWW). Saas is characterised by simple deployment procedure, reduced expenditure in customer acquisition, flexibility- allowing support for many customers with a single version of the software.

Sequence Alignment: In bioinformatics, a Sequence Alignment is a process to arrange the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify and highlight similar regions.

Semiconductor: A Semiconductor is a material characterised by a behaviour that is in between a conductor and an insulator. This property makes them suitable for a wide ranging application in electronics. Silicon, Germanium and Pentacene are popular Semiconductor materials.

Software Defined Radio: Software-Defined Radio abbreviated as SDR is a wireless mode of communication where a computer defines or generates the transmitter modulation. With SDR, a single wireless device is able to support a wide range of capabilities. SDR has made possible what could earlier be done only by integrating multiple radio components.

SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition  abbreviated as SCADA is essentially a computer system for collecting data from various sensors at plants and factories, or even in remote locations and then directing the data collected to a central computer which then manages controls and analyzes the real time data.
SCADA systems can be both simple and complex with the emphasis is on collecting and disseminating the exact system information to the appropriate computer within a specified time for fast troubleshooting. SCADA systems are now very popular in industries- telecom, steel plants and power plants as well as in experimental facilities.

Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM): In telecom parlance, a Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is used for utilised for adding or dropping single wavelength in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing optical networks. Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is known to provide a stable wavelength, good isolation by integrating thin film filter technology and optical path packaging techniques which are epoxy-free

Smart Antennas:  Smart Antennas are changing the face of modern digital wireless communication systems with increased spectral efficiency, maximum range and clarity. Along with increasing use in mobile communications, they are used in RADAR systems, aerospace, GIS mapping and host of other applications. Smart Antennas can be broadly classified into 3 categories of Single Input, Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input, Single Output (MISO) and Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO).

Steganography: Steganography refers to the technique of hiding information. Modern Steganography intends exchanging secret messages through video, digital images, audio and encoded messages in computer software using passwords or algorithms along with a host of other techniques. Steganographic applications are available on different platforms.

Teraflop: A Teraflop measures computing performance. Teraflop typically defines a computer processor’s speed and refers to the number of floating point operations (FLOPS) it can perform per second. The speed is generally denoted as 1012 floating-point operations per second or trillion floating point operations per second. Teraflop computers find use in high-end research facilities and strategic applications.

Taxonomy: Taxonomy derives its meaning from Greek language. Taxis = arrangement or division, Nomos = law.  In the context of web portals, taxonomies are often prepared for providing a description to categories and subcategories of a website’s topics.

Tunnel Magnetoresistance: Tunnel Magnetoresistance abbreviated as TMR refers to the spin polarization (SP) of electrons occurring in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs)

Transceiver: A Transceiver is a device having transmission and reception capability in a single package. A most common illustration of Transceiver is a cellular phone that can both receive and send data. Transceiver has become the foundation for wireless communications devices.

Text to Speech System: Text to Speech System abbreviated as TTS is a technique to convert the words of the computer text into audible speech.  With a TTS engine application, email messages can be listened. TTS systems are especially proving a major boon to those who are visually challenged.

Testbed: A Testbed refers to the execution environment that enables software testing under normal working conditions. A test bed consists of OS, specific software/hardware, configuration of the product to be tested et al.

Terabyte: A Terabyte often shortened to TB with the prefix Tera meaning monster in Greek while byte is derived from bite. Terabyte measures a computer’s storage capacity. A Terabyte equals 1012 bytes.

Ultra Wideband: Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology is a power-efficient short-range radio technology which is best suited to WPANs (Wireless Personal Area Networks) UWB complements existing long range radio technologies like Wi-Fi and WiMAX and provides high bandwidth solution for multiple digital video and audio streams. A
UWB transmitter sends billions of pulses across a very wide frequency spectrum that is several GHz in bandwidth.  The pulses are then translated into data by the corresponding receiver by listening to the familiar pulse sequence that is sent by the transmitter. UWB is characterised by larger spectrum, low power consumption and pulsed data. This results in improved speed and a considerably reduced interference with other Wireless spectra.

Wavelength: In the electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength is the complete distance of a wave cycle between any two points in the same phase.

Wi Fi: Wireless Fidelity or Wi-Fi refers to certain types of wireless local area network (WLAN) used across the world. Wifi networks can be of two types, the open type where anyone can have access or the closed type requiring passwords.

Wi-MAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access shortened to Wi-MAX is a broadband wireless network technology that utilises fixed antennas for providing 2-way broadband connections to consumers over distances.

WLAN: WLANs or Wireless Local Area Networks is a local area network that offers wireless network communication over relatively shorter distances. With WLAN there is flexibility to the networking by using radio or infrared signals or an extension to the current wired network.

 

XML: XML or Extensible Markup Language is a widely-implemented standard for data exchange. Data records and documents using XML are platform-independent and fully portable.  With XML, exchanging data between incompatible systems is distinctly possible.

 

2G: In the realm of cell phones, 2G refers to the second-generation wireless digital telephone technology. 2G cell-phone networks uses 3 common technologies to transmit information; they are Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

3G: 3G supersedes 2g as the third generation of mobile communications systems. It enhances services like multimedia, high speed mobile broadband, internet access with video footage on the mobile handset. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G networks there would be increased bandwidth, and support to diverse applications such as live streaming, video messaging et al.

4G: 4G refers to the fourth-generation of wireless mobile technology which will supercede 3G. A fully operational 4G is widely expected to facilitate pervasive computing-creating an environment where simultaneous connections to multiple high-speed networks will be a seamless handover across a geographical area.

6LoWPAN: 6LoWPAN refers to a new innovation in IP (Internet Protocol) technology. IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks or 6LoWPAN makes the Internet of Things to become a reality. 6lowPAN optimizes the mechanisms of wireless embedded networking.

Intelligent Sensors: Intelligent sensors are smart devices having Signal Processing functions which are shared by distributed machine intelligence. Robots which have the ability to perceive and reason are good example of Intelligent Sensors. Intelligent Sensors are now widely used in industrial setups in harsh environments detrimental to human safety.

CAD: Q-CAD is an easy to handle and highly effective software for creating quilting patterns graphically.

Routers: Routers are physical devices in computer networking that is used to join together multiple wired or wireless networks. The work that a router performs is termed as Routing. To put it in simple terms, Routers are devices that facilitate computers to interconnect or communicate with other computers including other computer hardware. Both wireless and wired Routers are popular.

Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM): In telecom parlance, a Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is used for utilised for adding or dropping single wavelength in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing optical networks. Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is known to provide a stable wavelength, good isolation by integrating thin film filter technology and optical path packaging techniques which are epoxy-free

Smart Antennas:  Smart Antennas are changing the face of modern digital wireless communication systems with increased spectral efficiency, maximum range and clarity. Along with increasing use in mobile communications, they are used in RADAR systems, aerospace, GIS mapping and host of other applications. Smart Antennas can be broadly classified into 3 categories of Single Input, Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input, Single Output (MISO) and Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO).


 

Categories: COMPUTER

Tagged as: ,