Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) refers to a variety of processes that help parties resolve disputes without a trial. Typical ADR processes include mediation, arbitration, neutral evaluation, and collaborative law. These processes are generally confidential, less formal, and less stressful than traditional court proceedings. In ADR processes such as mediation, parties play an important role in resolving their own disputes.

Arbitration: a neutral person called an “arbitrator” hears arguments and evidence from each side and then decides the outcome. Arbitration is less formal than a trial and the rules of evidence are often relaxed. In binding arbitration, parties agree to accept the arbitrator’s decision as final, and there is generally no right to appeal. In nonbinding arbitration, the parties may request a trial if they do not accept the arbitrator’s decision.

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Master of Philosophy Vs Doctor of Philosophy

The Master of Philosophy (MPhil) entails the writing of a supervised thesis of up to 30,000 words, as well as completing a course in legal research method.

The MPhil is a three-term full-time programme with a usual residence requirement for three terms from the date of admission. The MPhil thesis must make a worthwhile contribution to knowledge and or understanding in its field.

The Doctor of Philosophy (DPhil) is the Faculty’s most advanced research qualification and entails writing a thesis of between 75,000 and 100,000 words, which must make a significant and substantial contribution to its field.

Full-time study for the DPhil usually comprises three to four years and part-time six to eight years, inclusive of research methodology training in the first year for full-time students and over years one and two for part-time students. The part-time study requires attendance for a minimum of 30 days of university-based work each year, normally coinciding with the full terms of the academic year.

Collegiate university

A collegiate university, which means it is made up of self-governing, independent colleges. All students are a member of a college. Colleges provide students with an ideal opportunity for interaction with peers from different academic disciplines, countries and backgrounds, as well as a place to get involved in clubs, sports and cultural activities, socialise, eat and sometimes live.

In a collegiate university, colleges are very important in admissions and teaching provision for undergraduate students, it is the Faculty that manages the admissions process and provides the teaching for graduate students.


A microbiome is a community of microorganisms that inhabit an ecological niche. Microbiomes exist in both environmental biotopes, for example, a water body or forest soil – and in living multicellular host organisms – such as humans, animals or plants.

A microbiome may be comprised of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes –protists and fungi.


Maybe. Whatever the cause of his tantrum the Prime Minister tripped into default mode and swung a left hook as per muscle memory. He did not need to be specific, you see, because when do leaders really need to be specific when they have conveniently random ‘enemies’ and mafias’ to blast? Here’s the troubling part though: did he think through his rage before igniting the tweets? [ The Dawn 30/11/2019]

Tantrum-Noun: Childish Cry

Tripped into – indulge in



If this be so, as it so seems, then the Prime Minister wants us to believe that the entire brouhaha in the top court and the ensuing adverse effects, was no one’s fault really, but in fact was – really – the fault of India, Al-Qaeda, ISIS, TTP, Ashraf Ghani, PML-N and PPP because, hey after all, why were they happy? [The Dawn 30/11/2019]

Ensuing: verb (used without object)- following or coming or happening

Disturbingly obvious

The prime minister is clearly not blaming his government and his team of legal wizards, that much is disturbingly obvious. We can then safely infer that he is pointing fingers at elements who wanted the system to be destabilised as a result of all that was transpiring in court. [The Dawn November 30, 2019]

Wizards – Pandits

Transpiring – clear

Disturbingly obvious – bothering


Data modeling

Data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance.

A data model theory is a formal data model description.

At the time of data modelling, we are structuring and organizing data. These data structures are then typically implemented in a database management system. In addition to defining and organizing the data, data modeling will impose (implicitly or explicitly) constraints or limitations on the data placed within the structure.

Managing large quantities of structured and unstructured data is a primary function of information systems. Data models describe structured data for storage in data management systems such as relational databases. They typically do not describe unstructured data, such as word processing documents, email messages, pictures, digital audio, and video.

The Domain Name System (DNS)

The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet.

IP address” (IP stands for “Internet Protocol”

Every computer on the Internet has a unique address – just like a telephone number – which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its “IP address” (IP stands for “Internet Protocol”). IP Addresses are hard to remember. The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the “domain name”) to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing, you can type It is a “mnemonic” device that makes addresses easier to remember.