Criminal Evidence

Law Library-

When I'm checking someone out and they notice me.

We are treating the law of evidence as it is gradually developing and the approach of the apex court towards a particular arena. Law is dynamic, however, interpretation is ever changing for delivering a better justice.  

All citations are from Supreme Court attention


Civil Evidence    ARROW 2

Collecting Evidence for Criminal Court  ARROW 2

Expert Evidence  ARROW 2

Electronic Evidence in Indian Law  ARROW 2

Commentary on Indian Evidence Act  ARROW 2


Common principles


P. Satyanaraynamurthy v. District Inspector of Police, State of A.P

BULLET 2         Motive

Kiriti Pal v. State of West Bengal

BULLET 2    Alibi

Vutukuru Lakshmaiah v. State of Andhra Pradesh

BULLET 2  Circumstantial evidence

Sharad Birdhichand Sarda v. State of Maharashtra

BULLET 2  Confession and its veracity

Indra Dalal v. State of Haryana

BULLET 2Extra judicial confession

Sahadevan v. State of Tamil Nadu

BULLET 2Circumstantial evidence and last seen theory

State of U.P. v. Satveer

BULLET 2Dying declaration

Dasin Bai v. State of Chhattisgarh

  • Multiple dying declarations

Lakhan v. State of Haryana (2015) 11 SCC 154

BULLET 2Expert witness

State of M.P. v. Keshar Singh

BULLET 2Discrepancies and improvement of witnesses

Dilawar Singh v. State of Haryana

BULLET 2    Secondary evidence (section 65)

NandkishoreLalbhai Mehta v. New Era Fabrics Pvt. Ltd. (2015) 9 SCC 755

BULLET 2  Electronic evidence

Tomaso Bruno v. State of U.P. (2015) 7 SCC

BULLET 2Suspicion 

Supreme  Court in Sujit Biswas vs. State of Assam (2013)12 SCC 406 had held that suspicion, however grave, cannot take the place of proof and the prosecution cannot afford to rest its case in the realm of “may be” true but has to upgrade it in the domain of “must be” true in order to steer clear of any possible surmise or conjecture. It was held, that the Court must ensure that miscarriage of justice is avoided and if in the facts and circumstances, two views are plausible, then the benefit of doubt must be given to the accused.[ reaffirmed P. SATYANARAYANA MURTHY VERSUS THE DIST. INSPECTOR OF POLICE AND ANR.  SEPTEMBER 14, 2015]


Specialised Norms

ARROW Matrimonial Matters

Vishwanath Agrawal v. Sarla Vishwanath Agrawal1, wherein this Court has held thus:
“39…….In a matrimonial dispute, it would be inappropriate to expect outsiders to come and depose. The family members and sometimes the relatives, friends and neighbours are the most natural witnesses. The veracity of the testimony is to be tested on objective parameters and not to be thrown overboard on the ground that the witnesses are related to either of the spouse. Exception has been taken by the courts below that the servants of the house should have been examined and that amounts to suppression of the best possible evidence…….” [ Position relied in BHANUBEN AND ANR. Versus STATE OF GUJARAT September 14, 2015]