Saraswat Vyakaran (सारस्वत-व्याकरण)by Anubhuti (अनुभूतिस्वरूपाचार्य) in Sanskrit

Hindu Holy Man

Saraswata-Vyakaranam in Sanskrit

Other Sanskrit Grammars

Sanskrit Mugdha Bodham Vyakaranam by Bopa Deva

ARDHA MAGADHI VYAKARANM-Jaina Siddhyanta Koumudi



Mozart on religion

Mozart`s religious beliefs

243. “I hope that with the help of God, Miss Martha will get well again. If not, you should not grieve too deeply, for God’s will is always the best. God will know whether it is better to be in this world or the other.”

(Bologna, September 29, 1770, to his mother and sister in Salzburg. The young woman died soon after.)

244. “Tell papa to put aside his fears; I live, with God ever before me. I recognize His omnipotence, I fear His anger; I acknowledge His love, too, His compassion and mercy towards all His creatures, He will never desert those who serve Him. If matters go according to His will they go according to mine; consequently nothing can go wrong,—I must be satisfied and happy.”

(Augsburg, October 25, 1777, to his father, who was showering him with exhortations on the tour which he made with his mother through South Germany.)

245. “Let come what will, nothing can go ill so long as it is the will of God; and that it may so go is my daily prayer.”

(Mannheim, December 6, 1777, to his father. Mozart was waiting with some impatience to learn if he was to receive an appointment from Elector Karl Theodore. It did not come.)

246. “I know myself;—I know that I have so much religion that I shall never be able to do a thing which I would not be willing openly to do before the whole world; only the thought of meeting persons on my journeys whose ideas are radically different from mine (and those of all honest people) frightens me. Aside from that they may do what they please. I haven’t the heart to travel with them, I would not have a single pleasant hour, I would not know what to say to them; in a word I do not trust them. Friends who have no religion are not stable.”

(Mannheim, February 2, 1778, to his father. For the reasons mentioned in the letter Mozart gave up his plan to travel to Paris with the musicians Wendling and Ramen. In truth, perhaps, his love affair with Aloysia Weber may have had something to do with his resolve.)

247. “I prayed to God for His mercy that all might go well, to His greater glory, and the symphony began….Immediately after the symphony full of joy I went into the Palais Royal, ate an iced cream, prayed the rosary as I had promised to do, and went home. I am always best contented at home and always will be, or with a good, true, honest German.”

(Paris, July 3, 1778, to his father. The symphony in question is no longer in existence, although Mozart wanted to write it down again at a later date.)

248. “I must tell you my mother, my dear mother, is no more.—God has called her to Himself; He wanted her, I see that clearly, and I must submit to God’s will. He gave her to me, and it was His to take her away. My friend, I am comforted, not but now, but long ago. By a singular grace of God I endured all with steadfastness and composure. When her illness grew dangerous I prayed God for two things only,—a happy hour of death for my mother, and strength and courage for myself. God heard me in His loving kindness, heard my prayer and bestowed the two mercies in largest measure.”

(Paris, July 3, 1778, to his good friend Bullinger, in Salzburg, who was commissioned gently to bear the intelligence to Mozart’s father. At the same time Mozart, with considerate deception, wrote to his father about his mother’s illness without mentioning her death.)

249. “I believe, and nothing shall ever persuade me differently, that no doctor, no man, no accident, can either give life to man or take it away; it rests with God alone. Those are only the instruments which He generally uses, though not always; we see men sink down and fall over dead. When the time is come no remedies can avail,—they accelerate death rather than retard it….I do not say, therefore, that my mother will and must die, that all hope is gone; she may recover and again be well and sound,—but only if it is God’s will.”

(Paris, July 3, 1778, to his father, from whom he is concealing the fact that his mother is dead. He is seeking to prepare him for the intelligence which he has already commissioned Bullinger to convey to the family.)

250. “Under those melancholy circumstances I comforted myself with three things, viz.: my complete and trustful submission to the will of God, then the realization of her easy and beautiful death, combined with the thought of the happiness which was to come to her in a moment,—how much happier she now is than we, so that we might even have wished to make the journey with her. Out of this wish and desire there was developed my third comfort, namely, that she is not lost to us forever, that we shall see her again, that we shall be together more joyous and happy than ever we were in this world. It is only the time that is unknown, and that fact does not frighten me. When it is God’s will, it shall be mine. Only the divine, the most sacred will be done; let us then pray a devout ‘Our Father’ for her soul and proceed to other matters; everything has its time.”

(Paris, July 9, 1778, to his father, informing him of his mother’s death.)

251. “Be without concern touching my soul’s welfare, best of fathers! I am an erring young man, like so many others, but I can say to my own comfort, that I wish all were as little erring as I. You, perhaps, believe things about me which are not true. My chief fault is that I do not always appear to act as I ought. It is not true that I boasted that I eat fish every fast-day; but I did say that I was indifferent on the subject and did not consider it a sin, for in my case fasting means breaking off, eating less than usual. I hear mass every Sunday and holy day, and when it is possible on week days also,—you know that, my father.”

(Vienna, June 13, 1781—another attempt at justification against slander.)

252. “Moreover take the assurance that I certainly am religious, and if I should ever have the misfortune (which God will forefend) to go astray, I shall acquit you, best of fathers, from all blame. I alone would be the scoundrel; to you I owe all my spiritual and temporal welfare and salvation.”

(Vienna, June 13, 1781.)

253. “For a considerable time before we were married we went together to Holy Mass, to confession and to communion; and I found that I never prayed so fervently, confessed and communicated so devoutly, as when I was at her side;—and her experience was the same. In a word we were made for each other, and God, who ordains all things and consequently has ordained this, will not desert us. We both thank you obediently for your paternal blessing.”

(Vienna, August 17, 1782.)

254. “I have made it a habit in all things to imagine the worst. Inasmuch as, strictly speaking, death is the real aim of our life, I have for the past few years made myself acquainted with this true, best friend of mankind, so that the vision not only has no terror for me but much that is quieting and comforting. And I thank my God that He gave me the happiness and the opportunity (you understand me) to learn to know Him as the key to true blessedness.”

(Vienna, April 4, 1787, to his father, who died on the 28th of the following month. One of the few passages in Mozart’s letters in which there are suggestions of the teachings of Freemasonry. In 1785 he had persuaded his father to join the order, with the result that new warmth was restored to the relationship which had cooled somewhat after Mozart’s marriage.)

255. “To me that again is art twaddle! There may be something true in it for you enlightened Protestants, as you call yourselves, when you have your religion in your heads; I can not tell. But you do not feel what ‘Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi’ and such things mean. But when one, like I, has been initiated from earliest childhood in the mystical sanctuary of our religion; when there one does not know whither to go with all the vague but urgent feelings, but waits with a heart full of devotion for the divine service without really knowing what to expect, yet rises lightened and uplifted without knowing what one has received; when one deemed those fortunate who knelt under the touching strains of the Agnus Dei and received the sacrament, and at the moment of reception the music spoke in gentle joy from the hearts of the kneeling ones, ‘Benedictus qui venit,’ etc.;—then it is a different matter. True, it is lost in the hurly-burly of life; but,—at least it is so in my case,—when you take up the words which you have heard a thousand times, for the purpose of setting them to music, everything comes back and you feel your soul moved again.”

(Spoken in Leipsic, in 1789, when somebody expressed pity for those capable musicians who were obliged to “employ their powers on ecclesiastical subjects, which were mostly not only unfruitful but intellectually killing.” Rochlitz reports the utterance but does not vouch for its literalness.)



Beethoven’s Letters to Pastor Amenda




2nd January 1800.



I received and read your last letter with deep emotion, and with mingled pain and pleasure. To what can I compare your fidelity and devotion to me? Ah! it is indeed delightful that you still continue to love me so well. I know how to prize you, and to distinguish you from all others; you are not like my Vienna friends. No! you are one of those whom the soil of my fatherland is wont to bring forth; how often I wish that you were with me, for your Beethoven is very unhappy. You must know that one of my most precious faculties, that of hearing, is become very defective; even while you were still with me I felt indications of this, though I said nothing; but it is now much worse. Whether I shall ever be cured remains yet to be seen; it is supposed to proceed from the state of my digestive organs, but I am almost entirely recovered in that respect. I hope indeed that my hearing may improve, but I scarcely think so, for attacks of this kind are the most incurable of all. How sad my life must now be!–forced to shun all that is most dear and precious to me, and to live with such miserable egotists as —-, &c. I can with truth say that of all my friends Lichnowsky [Prince Carl] is the most genuine. He last year settled 600 florins on me, which, together with the good sale of my works, enables me to live free from care as to my maintenance. All that I now write I can dispose of five times over, and be well paid into the bargain. I have been writing a good deal latterly, and as I hear that you have ordered some pianos from —-, I will send you some of my compositions in the packing-case of one of these instruments, by which means they will not cost you so much.

To my great comfort, a person has returned here with whom I can enjoy the pleasures of society and disinterested friendship,–one of the friends of my youth [Stephan von Breuning]. I have often spoken to him of you, and told him that since I left my fatherland, you are one of those to whom my heart specially clings. Z. [Zmeskall?] does not seem quite to please him; he is, and always will be, too weak for true friendship, and I look on him and —- as mere instruments on which I play as I please, but never can they bear noble testimony to my inner and outward energies, or feel true sympathy with me; I value them only in so far as their services deserve. Oh! how happy should I now be, had I my full sense of hearing; I would then hasten to you; whereas, as it is, I must withdraw from everything. My best years will thus pass away, without effecting what my talents and powers might have enabled me to perform. How melancholy is the resignation in which I must take refuge! I had determined to rise superior to all this, but how is it possible? If in the course of six months my malady be pronounced incurable then, Amenda! I shall appeal to you to leave all else and come to me, when I intend to travel (my affliction is less distressing when playing and composing, and most so in intercourse with others), and you must be my companion. I have a conviction that good fortune will not forsake me, for to what may I not at present aspire? Since you were here I have written everything except operas and church music. You will not, I know, refuse my petition; you will help your friend to bear his burden and his calamity. I have also very much perfected my pianoforte playing, and I hope that a journey of this kind may possibly contribute to your own success in life, and you would thenceforth always remain with me. I duly received all your letters, and though I did not reply to them, you were constantly present with me, and my heart beats as tenderly as ever for you. I beg you will keep the fact of my deafness a profound secret, and not confide it to any human being. Write to me frequently; your letters, however short, console and cheer me; so I shall soon hope to hear from you.

Do not give your quartet to any one [in F, Op. 18, No. 1], as I have altered it very much, having only now succeeded in writing quartets properly; this you will at once perceive when you receive it. Now, farewell, my dear kind friend! If by any chance I can serve you here, I need not say that you have only to command me.

Your faithful and truly attached

Manush Manusher Jannya-Bhupen Hazarika

মানুষ মানুষের জন্য

জীবন জীবনের জন্য

একটু সহানুভূতি কি মানুষ পেতে পারে না

ও বন্ধু….

মানুষ মানুষকে পণ্য করে
মানুষ মানুষকে জীবিকা করে
পুরনো ইতিহাস ফিরে এলে লজ্জা কি তুমি পাবে না?
ও বন্ধু………..

বল কি তোমার ক্ষতি
জীবনের অথৈ নদী
পার হয় তোমাকে ধরে দূর্বল মানুষ যদি
মানুষ যদি সে না হয় মানুষ
দানব কখনো হয় না মানুষ
যদি দানব কখনো বা হয় মানুষ লজ্জা কি তুমি পাবে না?
ও বন্ধু……….

Musical work

Copyright Act, 1957 – Section 2

Section 2(p) reads as follows:

musical work” means a work consisting of music and includes any graphical notation of such work but does not include any words or any action intended to be sung, spoken or performed with the music

The expression is defined to mean any composition that could be represented by any graphical notation but it does not include the lyrics intended for singing or reciting or performing with music. The use of graphic notation itself is not a pre-requisite as the definition of composer in Section 2(ffa) states that “composer”, in relation to a musical work, means the person, who composes the music regardless of whether he records it in any form of graphical notation. By way of illustration, a traditional rendering of Indian music is comprised of rhythm set through talas and composed to a musical lilt through swaras. The lyrics are yet another component which are the words that go into music. They are the literary component of music. When a performer sings the lyrics with music, he expounds an artistic work. In other words, if lyrics composed is set to music and a vocal rendition is made, it is literally a combination of three ‘works’. The lyric is the ‘literary work’, the musical notation is the ‘musical work’ and the actual performance by the singer is the ‘artistic work’, as admirably summed up by a decision in Sankar Biswas v. Salil Chatterjee (1992) 96 CWN 540. The fourth dimension could be added now to understand what a sound recording is. The term “sound recording” is defined u/s 2(xx), as follows:

Section 2(xx)-“sound recording” means a recording of sounds from which such sounds may be produced regardless of the medium on which such recording is made or the method by which the sounds are produced.

It means a recording of sounds in any medium which when played reproduces that sound. Under the definition, it could be any medium on which such recording is made. It could also be by any method by which the sound is produced. Recording could be made of the voice or from an instrument or any form that is discerned by senses. As examples, it could be in a CD, in a cassette, in a gramophone record, or in the device which not merely records it but also is capable of reproducing it. A record itself is meaningful only when it can be reproduced. It can be a music which is recorded; it could be a speech, which is recorded; or it could any sound which is recorded. Every one of such recording that is capable of reproduction in any form goes for sound recording. Where do these rights reside? They reside in author or authors of each one of the above. Section 2(d) that defines an ‘author’ means, (ii) in relation to a musical work, the composer; …(v) in relation to a cinematograph film or sound-recording, the producer. When is the author’s right infringed? An ‘infringing copy’ is defined Section 2 (m) that includes 3 components viz., (i) in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, a reproduction thereof otherwise than in the form of a cinematographic film; (ii) in relation to a cinematographic film, a copy of the film made on any medium by any means; (iii) in relation to a sound recording, any other recording embodying the same sound recording, made by any means.

Shruthi box

With regard to Shruthi box and Tabala, although they do not bear the appearance and shape of Tabala and traditional Shruthi box but they play the music of traditional Tabala and Shruthi box. It may be that electronic chips are fitted in the said instruments with prerecorded tunes and sounds but the dominant function of the said instruments is to play the music of Indian musical instruments. The need of skills to play the traditional Shruthi box and Tabala is dispensed with. The vocalist by switch of a button can have the tunes and musical sounds to suit the convenience. It is said that two instruments are of great assistance to the beginners for the music in practice. Merely because the said instruments have prerecorded chips, the dominant function of the said instruments is to play the role of Indian musical instruments.

The said two instruments are only used in practice and not in concerts. In order to use the said instruments, the vocalist should have necessarily have the basic knowledge of thalas and ragas in order to use the instruments in their practice. Merely because they have shape of a tape-recorder and electronic chips fitted in, it cannot be said that they do not be called as Indian musical instruments because the functional features of the said instruments is very much that of traditional Shruthi box and traditional Tabala. It should be noted that the market for these instruments are very marginal. There is a decline in the musical taste of the people towards the Indian music and Indian musical instruments. It is said that Shruthi box and Tabala manufactured by the assessee are very much necessary for the beginners who practice in music. In fact these instruments would play a tune for the practicing vocalist.

STATE OF KARNATAKA  Vs. M/S. RADEL ELECTRONIC PVT. LTD [ (2013) 2 AirKarR 619 : (2013) 76 KantLJ 343]


The systematic study of documentation of sound recording, cataloging. including cataloging of an individual artist, group, orchestra, performance or musical theater.


  • Díaz-Ayala, Cristóbal – Encyclopedic Discography of Cuban Music, Vol. 1 (1898-1925). Florida International University, 2014.
  • Díaz-Ayala, Cristóbal – Encyclopedic Discography of Cuban Music, Vol. 2 (1925-1960). Florida International University, 2014.


  1. Miguel Díaz
  2. Antonio Domini (AD)
  3. Fernández
  4. Esteban Figuera (EF)
  5. Antonio Morejón (AM)
  6. Juan Pagés (JPa)
  7. Miguel Puertas Salgado (MPS)
  8. Tomás Ramos (TR)
  9. Armando Rodríguez
  10. Martín Silveira (MSi)
  11. Ventura-Peralta Quartet

Prem Ekbari Esechhilo Neerabe

প্রেম একবারই এসেছিল নিরবে
আমারই এ দুয়ার প্রান্তে

সে তো হায় মৃদু পায়
এসেছিল পারি নি তো জানতে।।
সে যে এসেছিল বাতাস তো বলে নি
হায় সেই রাতে দীপ মোর জ্বলে নি।
তারে সে আধারে চিনিতে যে পারি নি
আমি পারি নি ফিরায়ে তারে আনতে।।

                 প্রেম একবারই এসেছিল নিরবে

যে আলো হয়ে এসেছিল কাছে মোর
তারে আজ আলেয়া যে মনে হয়
এ আধারে একাকী এ মন আজ
আধারেরই সাথে শুধু কথা কয় –
আজ কাছে তারে এত আমি ডাকি গো
সে যে মরিচিকা হয়ে দেয় ফাকি গো।
ভাগ্যে যে আছে লেখা হায়রে
তারে চিরদিনই হবে জানি মানতে।।

             প্রেম একবারই এসেছিল নিরবে

শিল্পীঃ লতা মঙ্গেশকর
কথাঃ গৌরীপ্রসন্ন মজুমদার
সুরঃ হেমন্ত মুখোপাধ্যায়

Ei Sundor Sharnali Shondhay

এই সুন্দর স্বর্ণালী সন্ধ্যায়
একি বন্ধনে জড়ালে গো বন্ধু।।
কোন রক্তিম পলাশের স্বপ্ন
মোর অন্তরে ছড়ালে গো বন্ধু।।

আমলকি পেয়ালের কুঞ্জে,
কিছু মৌমাছি এখনো যে গুঞ্জে
জানি কোন সুরে
মোরে ভরালে গো বন্ধু।।

বাতাসের কথা সে তো কথা নয়
রূপ কথা ঝরে তার বাঁশিতে
আমাদেরও মুখে কোন কথা নেই
যেন দুটি আঁখি ভরে
রাখে হাসিতে।।

কিছু পরে দূরে তারা জ্বলবে
হয়তো তখন তুমি বলবে।
কোন মালা গেঁথে গলে
পরালে গো বন্ধু।।

শিল্পী- গীতা দত্ত
কথা- গৌরিপ্রসন্ন মজুমদার
সুর ও সঙ্গীত- অমল মুখার্জী
ছায়াছবি- হসপিটাল

Amay Akash Bollo


আমায় আকাশ বলল
আমায় আকাশ বলল তোমার দু’চোখ মেঘ রঙ দিয়ে আঁকতে

শুনে সাগর বলল… সাগর বলল…
তা কি করে হয়… তার এত নীল থাকতে…
আমি কাকে খুশি করি বলো… কাকে খুশী করি বলো…

যখন ভাবছিলাম … তোমায় কি দেবো নতুন নাম
যখন ভাবছিলাম … তোমায় কি দেবো নতুন নাম
তখন পাখিরা বললো… তাদের নামেতে তোমায় এখনি ডাকতে
শুনে ফুলেরা বললো… ফুলেরা বললো…
তা কি করে হয়… তাদের এত নাম থাকতে…
আমি কাকে খুশী করি বলো… আমি কাকে খুশী করি বলো

যখন ভেবে না পাই, তোমায় কোথায় রাখতে চাই…
যখন ভেবে না পাই, তোমায় কোথায় রাখতে চাই…
তখন মন যে বললো…
তোমায় এখনি মনের মধ্যে রাখতে…
শুনে প্রেম যে বললো… প্রেম যে বললো…
তা কি করে হয়… তার এতো সাধ থাকতে…
আমি কাকে খুশী করি বলো… আমি কাকে খুশী করি বলো

আমায় আকাশ বলল
আমায় আকাশ বলল তোমার দু’চোখ মেঘ রঙ দিয়ে আঁকতে
শুনে সাগর বলল… সাগর বলল…
তা কি করে হয়… তার এত নীল থাকতে…
আমি কাকে খুশি করি বলো… কাকে খুশী করি বলো…।

শিল্পীঃ মান্না দে কথাঃ পুলক বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায় সুর ও সঙ্গীতঃ প্রভাষ দে